OLF & It’s Group: – How Many More Raids Do Ethiopians Tolerate? by Engeda Kassa
This article is an extracted version of my 15 pages commentary article posted on the then Ethiopian Unity website in 2004, to an argument made between Mr. Getachew Redda and an OLF official Mr. Dumesaa Diimmaa on OLF’s Mission issues. The extraction is made inline with another current response of Mr. Mumessaa to Mr. Shiferaw Abebe’s article on OLF 4th regular session Communiqué. Dumessaa Diimmaa and Abebe Shiferaw. Backup Links:
What makes me to revisit and updated my commentary of Jan 27, 2004 was that the very recent dudgeon, an inflammatory and disgusting response of Mr. Dumesaa to Mr. Shiferaw Abebe’s credible and asserted/assertive analysis on OLF’s mission and policy statement and its National Council Communiqué, posted on ethiomedia on July 23, 2010 was found to be similar to the one I read in late 2003, from the same person, Mr. Dumesaa. Since I knew him then, this man’s mind is hardly possible to grow up and comprehend the real history of Oromo migration to Ethiopia. For that matter, his articles are always spinning on ethnic hatred on a specific segment of our society, Amhara and Ethiopia. Why so many dogs after dog on Ethiopia and Amhara that tantamount to as an incitement of genocide?
In fact, during our childhood, we grew up using the word Amhara for Christianity as Muslim to Islam religion until very recently Weyanne and OLF jointly labelled it to “us” to attack and discriminate us so that we couldn’t be part of our country’s future political destiny. The fact of the matter is that, what we knew about “us” and is “inside our blood” is just sovereign Ethiopia and brotherhood; but not any ethnic affliction of your kind. This alienation had been more materialised during the so-called transitional government formation on June 1991 which TPLF and OLF both were their drams’ stage actors. Otherwise, there was no any historical fact that justifies Amhara, as a society, according to Mr. Dumessaa word “grieved nefitsegna”, waged war against others to conquer and annex to be the guardian of the empire. If in fact, putting once life at risk to protect the sovereignty of the country is to be nick named as “grieved nefitsegna”, turn your face from West to the East, i.e., 180˚, and think again to know what the real history of nefitsegna mean?
The hard reality is that, if there is such greedy subjugation and appropriation in our Ethiopian history, it is just now happened by the racist and tyrant TPLF Meles leadership with the collaboration of condom OPDO. I hope you would know the fact that none of the so-called APDM leaders are/been Amhara!! You know who Tamrat, Bereket Smon, and the rest of them as well as the Oromo Addisu Legesse? It is good time to remind two scenarios what Tamrat and Bereket had done at different times:
I remember, when Tamrat was PM and also APDM leader, he was invited to bless the then conference of different ethnic organizations in the Southern Ethiopia which Prof Beyene was part of it. During that conference, these different ethic organizations, for simplicity and convenience reasons were using Amharic as their language of conference. When Tamrat knew that Amharic was used, he accused the delegates and said “still the sprite of this grieved nefitsegna’s language is rules you?” and was very dismayed.
The other thing is that, very recently which was last year, Bereket was hosting a panel discussion interfacing with his audience on a wall screen TV nationwide. Obviously a series of question were given to his audience before hand, mainly how the past Amhara leaders were problematic to Ethiopia. Over a sudden, one innocent Oromo origin asked a very simple question as follows: “I heard so many times the word nefitsegna, unfortunately, don’t know what it is/mean, would you please give me a brief description of what it mean?”
Then, Bereket was delighted to be asked what he wants as well as to answer such a question. He explained that “Nefitsegna are persons who were part of Amhara ruling class, who took land, violates democratic and human rights, . . . etc., then finally he asked if he has had clearly answered her question? Then this innocent woman replied, “Yes, according to the definition you gave me, I now understand that your definition and explanation best goes with Tigre; and, now Tigre is nefitsegna?” Then, Bereket stands naked in front of his nationwide audiences with no answer to reply?
TPLF and Meles try to overwrite history and gave different meaning to what yesterday’s nefitsegna meaning was. TPLF, from its inception, is against Amhara and Ethiopia but now the reality is that all different ethnics groups in Ethiopia are all against TPLF, every thing it disseminate starts backfiring; the same would be true to OLF; i.e., if such OLF’s cadres don’t come to their human sense very soon and respect Ethiopian History and statehood the reality will backfire too as it did to TPLF.
offcourse we could get a few Amhara file and rank members – - – what we call them in Amharic as “jele” – - – recruited by TPLF from the two neighbouring regions of Tigray deliberately done to get/have a “road liner” to Addis Ababa; offcourse after that OPDO and later SEPDF are doing the rest of the job. Shameful, history and the generation to come will judge both of them!! Anyway, the then road liners are either killed soon after task completed or could be now in prison so that they couldn’t be potential rivals to TPLF’s wealthy appropriation, robbery (which Tamrat Laynie called it the “SUGAR”) and ruling.
I remember reading such article on a debate between Mr Getachew Redda and the OLF official Mr. Dumesaa Diimmaa, which was posted on Dekialula Website quite sometimes in late 2003. Although, Mr. Dumesaa’s malicious approach is always so irritating all Ethiopians, I was declining not to argue with such irresponsible and ethnic hatred person of this kind. Nonetheless, later, I felt guilty consciousness for not telling Mr. Dumeesaa and his associate about his fabricated history of OLF’s mission and policy statements and what Ethiopia and Ethiopians are all about! Because, as we say in Amharic, “if a lie is re-repeated it almost seems true” meaning “ws’et sidegagem ewnet ymeslal”, which they feel succeeding so far in their lie paradigm.
Besides, although Mr. Dumesaa claims he is Oromo, I suspect that this man should be TPLF’s cadre who tries to create an animosity between the innocent Oromo and Amhara societies in which both of them are suffering by racist TPLF’s Meles ruling at this historical Juncture. Because, it is only this way that Meles and TPLF could stay in power. Otherwise, OLF or any other Oromo individuals couldn’t deny the past reality of Oromo migration in Ethiopia. If it denies and try to argue this, as a few naïve may even exist today, history will backfire against it.
Our solid Ethiopian history begins from the civilized and powerful kings of Axumite Empire which was reaching far beyond our current borders, then the Zagwe dynasty of Lasta and Wag (r. 1137-1270), then Yekuno Amlak (better known with Kebra Negast) of Showa (r. 1272-1559), then Minas (r. 1559-1563) who had created today’s modern parliamentary system of government, This was more discussed by a paper presented during the Ethiopian National Congress Scholarly Meeting after the 2000 Ethio-Eritrea war by the prominent historian Prof Fikre Tolossa. then, his son – - – Serse Dingil (r. 1563-1597) – - – and many in-between and Susinyos (r. 1607 – 1632) all of them crowned in Gojjam, then Fasilidas (r. 1632 – till the then emergent of the warlords era) to Gondar, and then the mythical throne-name Tewodros of Qwra and many more.
Even, the destructor, Ahmed Gran’ attempt- – - using our historical Islam Mosque in Harar – - – unjustly to Islamism all Ethiopians is/was also our sad history which Gelawdewos fought it ferociously and decisively and his Portuguese soldier shoot down/killed Gran’ in 1543 at Weyna Dega (Dembiya). Each and everybody of these kings and Imams, whether it is good or bad, had left their historical blue print of their time. When Gran’ rushed from East and Southeast of Ethiopia to the West and North of Ethiopia, all the artefacts from the Zege Island of Lake Tana convoyed/escorted for safety to Axum including the Moses’s Arch of the Covenant; as Moses’s Arch of the Covenant came to Ethiopia following the roots of Blue Nile River and used to stay at Zege till Gran’ war; please consult Ethiopian Airlines Tourist guide magazines before TPLF regime.
Dumessaa, do you think that Ahmed Gran’ was killed at Dembiya while he was trying to go for a visit to the Semen Mountains as a tourist and consequently you mean that what we call now East and Southeast parts were not the Heartland of Ethiopia, and deny this history? Which was your Oromo Nation that the Ethiopians have had conquered and annexed?
The fact of the matter was that, while these kings were fighting each other for power as well as for sovereign Ethiopia, the Oromo clans were exploiting the situation on ground and intensified their raids to force others to vacate their ancestor’s land. As a result, soon Gran’ killed and his armies put into disarray, Gran’ army general Nur rushed back to Harar to save the historic town Harar from the continued eruption of Oromo penetration and destruction and later had built the historic “wall” as a last barricade(see below, when).
Meaning, if you accept this real history that is fine we can live together peaceful, democratically, and equally as people of ONE NATION, Ethiopia. Otherwise, you are accountable to your words that tantamount to an incitement of genocide. Inline to this, we have had seen many genocides of different kind committed against innocent Ethiopians since TPLF came into power; all are recorded which OLF and OPDO are implicated too. Believe me; justice will definitely come one day. We Ethiopians have had revived many times from the ashes of destruction of different kinds. Notably, Ahmed Gran’ and Yudit Gudit’s unprecedented destructive wars of that old era, and from the Italian invasion of our modern times are some of the cases to remind.
We can’t overwrite history; it always remains as it happened. Event, time, and space are key attributes of history. Unfortunately, whether we like it or not, after the fall of TPLF, history will also record and tells what TPLF is doing now and since its inception, which the tomorrow’s historians history’s statement would starts with, for instance: “A mercenary group of individuals, naming itself TPLF, from the historical north region of Tigre, lead by Meles – - – he, himself from a banda father and Eritrean mother who had had voted Eritrea to be cut down from its mother Ethiopia – - – claiming indoctrinated by an Albanian Communism and theory of secession, but, are also truly ethno racist, tyrant and dwarfed by inferiority complex had tried their best to disintegrate Ethiopia by creating tension and division within the societies of Ethiopia, which this meant to be its’ tactic of divide and rule; as well as using the resources provided by the Ethiopian enemy countries and the ever weak and most hated central government called itself Derg. . . . however, Ethiopia, once more revived from the ashes of another destruction of new kind by its’ determined Ethiopians of different ethnic backgrounds and now Ethiopia transited to modern democratic system of government where by its people live peacefully and democratically for the first time in its three thousand statehood history” and, many more . . . .
If fact, still, I’m not going to argue with Mr. Dumesaa and his associate on such backward issues. Because, looking forward and forging a viable and consensus solution to our multidimensional and so complex common problems based on equally footing and on a principle of modern democratic politics, economical and social justice and equality on our Ethiopian future fate would be more important and timely. However, I would like to discuss a little bit what Mr. Dumeesaa, his OLF groups, and PhD. Birhanu Nega’s the so-called gada system is all about.
Dumessaa wrote, ethiomedia, Aug 16, 2010:
“On the issues of national unity and the role of Oromo nation in general and that of the OLF in particular, there is a need to sketch a brief history of the Empire. Ethiopia was forged as an Empire in the last half of the 19th century by successive Abyssinian Emperors and warlords from the north.”
No, this is absolutely false; Ethiopia is/was not a forged of the 19th century polities!! What needs to be clear and underlined from the outset is that before we start talking about national unity, peace, democracy, equality and the rule of law first and foremost each and everybody, including Dumessaa and his associate shall accept that Ethiopia has had really existed for three thousand years and will continues to exist as statehood with its border, this key sovereignty issue should be learnt by heart. In the meantime, contrary to Mr. Dumessaa assumption theory, Ethiopian previous/old era’s/ border was far wider than the one we have at hand currently. What is true about Ethiopia is that, Ethiopia has neither been democratic state during that old era nor during TPLF current regium.
Dumessaa continues . . .
“Oromo Nation predates the onslaught of Abyssinian and European conquest and colonialism . . . it existed like most African polities of the period, including that of many Abyssinia regions (i.e. Gondar, Gojjam, Tigray, etc.) independent and self reliant of its resources governed by republican legislative governance called Gadda democracy.”
What makes Ethiopian polities so distinct from the rest of today’s African polities is that Ethiopia has had existed as a state even before the European colonialist came into being as a state, and, later stepped to Africa to create new marked/bordered states what we call it now African Countries. Sadly, let leave alone to claim as if there was an Oromo Nation that has had existed as nation of that old era, even there was no any region that was called Oromia until very recently!! At the same token, to remind you, the today’s Welege and around was called Sidama. The following: Adal (which is now Harar and Somali), Sidama, Hadya, Dawaro, Bali, Damot-Gojjam, Dembiya-Begemder, Walqait Simen, Lasta-Angot, Afar, Sire-Tigre, Bahr Midir were Key regions of the Ethiopian Empire at the beginning of the 16th century; what was so fascinating was that, all these regions were rival in power to each other.
Each of these regions had had produced very powerful warlords and kings that had had influenced its region and beyond. However, at the end of the day, the strongest of the stronger was bringing others under his ruling; this could be done either by appeasement or by coercion. Unlike today’s modern politics, that was the rule of the then game. This was not only in Ethiopia but were also everywhere in that old world. So, the question to ask here is, which one of these regions was your Oromo Nation? Nothing, you produce!!
The other funny thing mentioned at the above statement is that, “the Oromo Nation was governed by republican legislative governance called Gadda Democracy” which PhD Birhanu Nega he himself was mistaken to write a Gada system as a participatory democratic system in his identify politics and the struggle for liberty and democracy in Ethiopia, posted on Ethiomedia.com on Aug 2010.
Dr Birhanu Nega wrote, ethiomedia, page 19, last paragraph, No date stated:
“As Amartya Sen said there is “nothing exclusively “Western” about valuing liberty or defending public reasoning . . . there is, in fact, a long tradition of participatory governance in Africa as well ” This certainly is not a debatable point for the Oromo community as the Gaada is the perfect example of this tradition in our own region.” [Dr Birhanu Nega]
As to my understanding, despite I note a few such shortfalls from him; I believe that Dr Birhanu is one of the best politicians ever Ethiopia has produced so far in this contemporary world. His vision to statehood Ethiopia and to all Ethiopians of different ethnics and religion is so deep and kind respectively. Especially, at last, I’m very pleased that he came to know very well what TPLF and Meles is doing against Ethiopia and its people. As a result, I hope he will fight TPLF in a way he thinks is most appropriate. He is extremely outspoken and his mind is full of resources which will never get dry. One of the key successes of Kinijit in that May 15, 2005 election was obviously Nega was always top of the election panel discussion shown in that tighten TV schedules. TPLF and Meles thought that they had detained him badly, but they were too naïve being not knowing that they were not able detaining his mind. As a result, although I believe that there were some technicality and procedural problems (I’m not going to discuss these now), he had produced that magnificent piece of book in that TPLF prison cell “yentsanet goh siqed, At dawning of liberty,” This book has clearly shown how the then Kinijit went far . . . far a mile for peace and the rule of law which TPLF rejected it and instead simultaneously gun down innocent Ethiopians and its own constitution.
Now, before I refute the wish of Dumessaa’s Gada System as republican legislative government of Oromia, let me try to explain what the structure of Gada system is all about. Although, in general speaking, we call a person who speaks Oromogna as an Oromo; there is no really a structure that governs the people as other regions do have administrative structure from bottom to top. Instead, the Oromo have many small clans which each of it has its’ on distinct names and family roots. Such as: Baraytuma, Ittu, Humbana, Borana, Abitchu, Sadetcha, Afra-Gudru and many more. Truly, each of this clan was ruled by the same Gada system. The point is that, each clan was not at all interfacing with another clan in any manner either administratively or regional issues. However, as I said above, still each of them was following the Gada system. So, the point of interest here is what is Gada then?
Gada is a system which have six distinctive classes, according to Oromo language six lubas. These are: The first class, the second class, the third class, the fourth class, the fifth luba (which is called luba Mesle), and the sixth class. Now, the rule is, a son won’t come to the first class until his father had finished all the fifth classes and retired in the sixth class. Once a son starts the first class there is promotion to next class every eight years. Now, what are these classes are? According to the Gada system, each class has its own specific tasks to complete with. As the first class is new for the class system, it was not expected to do any thing than taking the usual training, brain washing. However, the second class in addition to more training was also expected to make raid as a support of the third class. To be initiated to the next class, he has to raid on an area which had not yet been previously attacked. The third luba was completely dedicated to raid on new areas and bring these new areas under its clan control and move forward till all its 8 years of raid on is completed and transformed to the fourth luba with more experienced and savage system of raid on. The war leader of the third luba/class is called Abba Dula and Abba Buko was the spiritual and political leader of each clan. The sixth class is those retried men looking after kids and cattle left behind at the newly subjugated lands and territories while the other lubas members were always rushing forward to kill and vacate others from their land; they weren’t caring who left behind. The Gada system’s attributes mentioned in one clan above works to every different clans.
Now, the point is that, all these different classes were greed to warfare and raiding others. Moreover, as Gada was set to achieve only a specific objective, i.e., to kill and raid on others society’s areas it was not convenient to model centralized administration structure that enables to govern by bringing these different clans at a specific given space. That is why we found that the Oromo are any where in Ethiopia, you find them in the South, East, West, North as far as Gondar and Wollo, which I here by refute that Gada system is a system that had only used at clan level which neither works more than a clan nor have legislative structure of any kind that governs a region. This implies that, there had never been an Oromo Nation which Ethiopia had conquered or annexed. Therefore, these clans were raid on other different society’s clan specially, in the East, South and West and North sides of Ethiopia.
On the other hand, all the then Ethiopian warlords, regional kings, and King of Kings were using well structured ruling documents that were well written on their ancient script language and thoroughly devolved as most appropriate. In this regard, Kebra Negast, the constitution of the land, was one of the case in point to be mentioned. From this fact, what I advice to Mr. Dumessaa and others is, it is worthwhile to read and know the ABC of Ethiopian true history than preoccupied with ethnic hatred and racist Meles’s malformed history.
Besides, I was astound why Dr Birhanu said that “nothing exclusively “Western” about valuing liberty or defending public reasoning … there is, in fact, a long tradition of participatory governance in Africa as well . . .”? Of course, this might be true in other African Countries, in fact, I couldn’t know any so far. Anyway, as Gada system was only limited to a clan level and is so outdated; I couldn’t get the importance of referring the system, specifically, at this point in time? The other reason why it was unnecessary was that, Meles is trying to deceive his Western donors by claiming that he is ruling Ethiopia on the way African democracy is working? Why, so such discrepancy happened and need to give another pretext to Meles to claim so? The first pretext given to Meles sometimes ago was that, instead of letting the “Means Itself Speaks Laud Practically”, Meles use the slogan of “By Any Means” as a pretext to suffer and kill Ethiopians who he feels are unneeded and suspicious. If fact, I believe that the struggle shall be by any means, but, why we need to say so than letting the “Means Itself Speaks Laud Practically” and be Defiant to Meles’s ruling? Meanwhile, when I comment Dr Birhanu’s statement of the above, I’m pretty sure that he won’t leave any stone unturned to fight Meles in the way he believes so!
Nonetheless, what I disagree is that we should be very smart in our choice of words and statements. For instances, the so-called oppositions inside were frequently accusing as if Ethiopia is transformed from Multiparty Politics to One Party politics after the May 2010 election. What happened here is that the oppositions had popped a One Party Politics into Meles’s mouth and mind. Then, Meles picked up this and said immediately, if One Party Stays in Power it doesn’t mean that there is no Multiparty Politics in a given country! To substantiate his claims he had mentioned the Japan’s and the Botswana’s Cases which doesn’t have any similarity with “Ethnic Ruling” shameful scenarios; while the fact of the matter is that there had not been any Multiparty Politics in Ethiopia since TPLF came into power in 1991 and before why the opposition said so? i.e., EPRDF never has been One Political Party rather it is One Racist and Tyrant Ethnic group called itself TPLF lead by a racist man, Meles.
On the other hand, Jimma Times: quoted Kemal of OSA, as saying:
“We Oromos are not gullible children who need guardians from foreign ideas,”
What mistake did Dr Birhanu done than respectfully and gently presenting his scholarly article on contemporary Ethiopia? What he really did mistake was that without sufficient analysis and assessment he sympathetically accepted your Gada system as if it was participatory governance and African. Probably, it would be wrong to say that he did that from naivety, but, rather it could also be wise to think that he said that to please OLF supports to beak the deadlock for common good. Imagine, Dr Birhanu is not a foreign element you think of. Rather, he was the first democratically elected mayor of the Capital City of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
In deed, Derg was using to spend a lot of resource to bring Oromos to read and write with their mother language. I believe that any Oromo to read and write with their language is not only their democratic right but it is their natural rights too. However, leaving behind the Ethiopian historic scripts which had been used and developed by different ethnic groups for centuries including by proud Oromos are so embarrassing to the innocent Oromos who have no the power to influence neither TPLF nor OLF cadres decisions. As a result, now, a new script was imported to change the mind set of our brethrens so that they could totally depart from long interconnection and social fabric of Ethiopian living. This indeed justifies how the ethnic hatred group of TPLF and OLF cadres reaches far to its highest climax.
What OLF’s cadres imported was not only new script to learn writing and reading, but, also so many forks and spoons to eat the ordinary stew and bread/Enjera/ meals with it just to be European Styles in writing and eating. Shameful!! This had remind me what has had the Rwandan President Pall Kegame did when the French Interior Minister was declaring to catch and extradite him to ICC if he cross the French airspace as being accused of him initially inciting the Rwandan Genocide by shooting down the then democratically elected Hutu ethnic first President’s plane and killing them all. At the end, in that Genocide nearly 900, 000 innocent Tutsis were criminally murdered by Hutus extremists.
As a result of that confrontation, Paul KeGame’ declared that he had changed the French Language of the country and its Currency within 24 hrs and switched to English language and other currency. As Paul KeGame used to live in Uganda for nearly 25 years, English might not be problem to him. However, changing the National Language of the country in that short instance of conflicts was almost similar to what TPLF and OLF did in Ethiopia to the innocent Oromos learn the new imported language and adopt the new style of eating the local made “Enjera’ with Fork and Spoon. Sadly, when French knew that its national interest in the region is being threatened; it immediately back down and tried to mend the rift made between them and forgets its attempts of extraditing him to ICC. The issue is who cares for the dead fish except the fisher man? I could have said more on this but I leave it here for the moment!
Anyway, here are some key historical facts which Mr. Dumessaa and his associate needs to read and know. Meanwhile, to respect and keep authors’ statement consistent with the book, I unpleasantly and sorrowfully left the word Galla without changing to Oromo. However, I hope whether Galla is left as it is, it won’t reduce the status of the proud Oromo society any.
Here, what I would like to advise the readers of this commentary form the outset is that, I would say, the Oromo history in this commentary is almost consulted & quoted from “M. Abir, ETHIOPIA AND THE RED SEA, 1980, Frank Cass And Company Limited.” This intensive and credible research on Ethiopian history on such details has got paramount role in assisting to envisage and assert the true history of Oromo migration in Ethiopian statehood. What is more interesting is that, there are plenty of tangible resources such as: (Pereira, F. M. E; Beccari, Vol. X; Budge, Vol. II; and Rossini, Sarsa Dengel, and many more), for those who seeks to know how the Oromo clans migrated to Ethiopia in the 16th century.
Meanwhile, when I encouraged others to consult these pieces of historical documents it is only from historical perspectives, otherwise, we don’t forget a bit what the true proud Oromo society in Ethiopia had contributed in the creation of our common Ethiopia. Their fate is now indispensable and interwoven with ours. We are the people of one Nation, “ETHIOPIA”. For that matter, although, our current struggle’s result are not seen yet, I believe, without achieving and realizing the equality and justice of each and every society in Ethiopia including Oromo’s, we have no peace to rest and mission not yet accomplished. Moreover, it is a bare fact that the Oromo society like any other of the Ethiopian societies has been under suppression by the then backward and feudal administrative systems as well as now by racist TPLF.
To begin with, I quote some points “… According to Galla ritual, members of the second class of the gada could not be initiated into the next class unless they killed a warrior (or a dangerous animal) and fought an enemy which had not been previously attacked. Such a system gave rises to endemic raids and the constant extension of the radius of Galla penetration. . . . By the middle of the sixteenth century, moreover, the population growth and substantial increase of Galla cattle, accompanied by a few years of drought, undoubtedly influenced the pattern of Galla migration” [Abir, p. 136, 1980]
We can see how the gada system was devised as means to wage war against the innocent Ethiopians within their homeland.
“…the Savannah and the semi-desert which they inhabited to the south of Bali could no longer support their growing numbers and their herds and Galla began to move into the southeastern peripheries of the Ethiopian plateau. The struggle between Gran and Christian Ethiopia undoubtedly facilitated the Galla migration into the highlands. But this expansion was later curbed by Gran’s armies and by Gelawdewos…” [Abir, pp. 136-7, 1980]
Nevertheless, the confrontation between Gelawdewos and Nur Mujahid, [Gran’ armies general], Gelawdewos and the Adal after Gran’s death and the chaos within Adal, gave the chance for the Baraytuma group to migrate deep into Chercher-Harar peripheries and into different other directions.
“…Thus, exploiting the absences of Nur and the bulk of the Muslim army, the Galla overran most of Harar’s territories and threatened the town proper. It was in this period, during the cycle of luba ‘Mesle’, (1556-1564), that the pattern of the Baraytuma’s expansion changed dramatically and became a full-scale migration.” [Abir, p. 137, 1980]
“Nur ‘the Just and Pious’ is even more glorified by Harari traditions that Gran ‘the Conquerer’ because he saved Harar from the Galla and dedicated himself to its protection. Nur’s armies continued to hold most of Waj and Fatagar even after 1560, when they were reported to have been defeated by Hamalmal. But rather than carrying on the traditional war against Ethiopia, from 1559 to the time of his death in 1567, Nur gave his undivided attention to the growing pressure of the Galla. Although Nur was unable to dislodge the Galla from the parts of the Chercher-Harar plateau which they had overrun and settled, his tireless campaigning and the wall which, according to tradition, he had built around the town, temporarily curbed the advance of the Baraytuma and saved Harar. ” [Abir, p. 137, 1980].
The Baraytuma Galla, especially the Ittu, Humbana and Karayu tribes, renewed their advance in the Chercher-Harar plateau [Abir, p. 138, 1980].
“. . . the Baraytuma swept the area and destroyed many hamlets and villages as fas as the hirterland of Zayla. The town of Harar itself was besieged for a time and had it not been for the timely arrival of reinforcements from the coast it might also have fallen to the Galla. . . .” [Abir, p. 139, 1980].
“. . . Harar, however, gradually declined because its economy was adversely affected by the occupation of most of its lands by the Galla . . . “the fortunes of Zayla were always closely connected to those of Harar. It was, therefore, badly affected by Harar’s decline and the deterioration of law and order in the whole region”” [Abir, p. 140, 1980].
“As the Baraytuma began their advance into the Harar-Chercher plateau and along the verges of the eastern escarpments in the 1550s they gradually vacated Bali with its excellent grazing lands and left it to their Borana brethren.” [Abir, p. 150, 1980].
Hamalmal was the powerful military figure of Gelawdewos and later to Minas. When Gelawdewos died in battle with Adal in 1559, Minas (r. 1559-1563) the third son of Queen Mother Sebla Wengel of Gojjam was crowned in Gojjam to succeed Gelawdewos. And the cousin of the young king Hamalmal was given more power in the southeast and its peripheries. His confrontation with Nur gave the Galla an ample chance to spread around Harar and its peripheries.
On the other part, Bahr Negaash Ishaq who was appointed by Gelawdewos was carefully watching the activities of the Turks and their allies, the Egyptians and the Yemen, in the peripheries of the Kingdom. But as he was not consulted about the crowned Minas, the most influential Ishaq protested against the young King. But Minas chased Ishaq from Tigray to the coast. Nevertheless, the influential Ishaq collaborated with Uzdamir, the Pasha of Turk in Egypt, had fought with Minas. As Minas was at the sometime fighting with the Adal and Nur, the Oromo got the chances to raid most areas of the southeast and its peripheries.
Enthroned Mina’s son, Serse Dingils’ (r. 1563-1597) was also preoccupied with defending the Turks’ enforcements from the Pash of Egypt and Yemen in the northern and eastern part of Ethiopia and with Oromo migration forms the south into different parts of Ethiopia.
Apparently, when the monarch left the area, the Oromo migration was more frustrating. “With the rise to power of a new luba in 1571/2 and the rituals related to the initiation into a new gada, the Galla, exploiting Serse Dingil’s unwise policy, began to invade Ethiopia proper from several directions. The Baraytuma increased the momentum of their migration and the Marawa, followed by the powerful Karayu tribe, raided westwards through Amhara as far as Begemder, Gojjam, and northern Showa. The Borana were quick to exploit the power vacuum created by Serse Dingil’s activities in the south. . . .Thus, while the ruler was in Dambiya, the Borana Galla in Bali and Dawaro crossed the Rift valley into Sidama –populated southern Ethiopia – sending raiding parties as far as Showa.” [Abir, p. 151, 1980].
“… the Borana renewed their westward migration immediately after the monarch left the area. However, they prudently adopted thereafter the tactics which had proved successful in the Baraytuma encounters with the Ethiopians along the eastern escarpments. Refraining from presenting the enemy with a ‘hard’ target, a raiding party accomplished its limited objectives and quickly retreated to a pre-prepared forward base or to a rear base, where the majority of the tribe and its cattle were located. The terrorised population conditioned throughout centuries to leave fighting to the professionals, rather preferred to escape to sheltered places than face the Galla.” [Abir, p. 151-2, 1980].
The problem here was that, once the inhabitancies were forced to evacuate their area because of Oromo raids, the professionals were neither able to get military logistic nor food, water and shelter to stay there and defend the Galla raids. As a result, the Oromo got an ample condition to replace the then vacate villages.
Besides, one of the terrible political mistakes committed by Serse Dingil was, his decision to dismantle the Chewa army to build a royal army in 1564-1567 for two reasons. “Serse Dingil’s decision to dismantle the Chewa defence infrastructure in critical provinces just at the time when the Borana and Baraytuma clans simultaneously erupted into Ethiopia. This disastrous decision was the outcome of the king’s mistaken sequence of priorities and distorted perception of the Galla migration …” [Abir, pp. 152-3, 1980].
As the Borana Galla migration was intensified, “…Supreme efforts were needed in Serse Dingil’s last years, therefore, to maintain the road between Gojjam, Damot and the southwest open and to protect Gojjam against Galla attacks.” [Abir, p. 163, 1980].
“By 1570, exploiting the topography of Amhara and the character of its government and population, the Baraytuma began to raid westwards into Ethiopia’s heartlands, as far as Gojjam and Dembiya. In the 1570s and 1580s, using Angot and Amhara (where the Wollo group began to settle) as their main bases they (mainly the Karayu-Azebu) pillaged Tigre, Begemder, northern Showa and parts of Gojjam. The Borana renewed their westward advance immediately after the departure of Serse Dingil in 1572. No longer hampered by the network of Chewa and the presence of royal army, they submerged the southern provinces and by 1576/7 penetrated Showa. In the coming years the numerous clans of the Mecha group moved west of Showa and began to raid Damot and nearby territories. Concurrently, their Tulama brothers began to settle in western and norhwestern Showa and to raid Gojjam across the Abbay. During the 1580s, while the Abitchu penetrated southern Showa, the Mecha and related groups occupied Bizamo and overran a large part of Damot. From there or from Showa their Sadetcha clans continued to expand towards the Omo-Gibe basin while, at the same time, their Afra-Gudru clans reached the Abbay from the south and increased their pressure northwards on Gojjam and westward on Damot.” [Abir, p.164, 1980].
Historically, Damot was a very big and strong region around what we call it now Ambo, Ginche and its peripheries which that was eventually overran by the new comers and amalgamated into Oromo clans; it was one of the main strong hold of the Amhara society. During that time the near by region was called Sidama, there was no any region called Welega until very recently.
After Serse Dingil death 1597, there was a power struggle between claimers. Yaeqob of the seven-year-old was crowned and the Zadingil, exiled to Lake Tana island, but latter he, Zaselassie, and Susinyos confronted until Susinyos crowned in Gojjam in 1607 in Adiete, near Bahir Dar. Susinyos (r. 1607-1632) crowned in Gojjam and to legitimize his coronation he want to Tigre in 1609 to be himself crowned in Axum by Abuna Simeon with all the pomp and according to all the ancient tradition of Ethiopia. At this time, the Galla got other opportunities to raid new areas.
The war between Spain and British in 1584 and the British attack of the Portuguese shipping line in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean to avenge Spain, as Portuguese was under Spain control, were a setback to the then Ethiopian Kings who were badly seeking Spain’s/Portuguese’s help in their war with the Galla raids. “Despite his faith in Catholicism it is curious that Susinyos decided to commit himself fully to the Roman faith at a time when he had given up hope of receiving aid from Spain and when he realised that Catholicism divided rather than united Ethiopia.” [Abir, p. 221, 1980].
Eventually, Susinyos shift his military command from Gojjam to Dembiya, which he named it later Gondar and nominated his son Fasilidas in 1624 to replace him in the future. During his time, i.e., after 1632 Fasilidas, consequently, changed/moved the seats of the national monks (including the 44 church and the Eteges/Queens and their families) form Deberlibanos to Azezo, and unlike previous king of kings Fasilidas used to spent most of his time with his wives chasing love, eventually this angered the Showa and the Gojjam nobles that results the event of warlord’s era. Unfortunately, during this era Ethiopian influence and territorial integrity that was starching to the Indian Ocean in the Southeaster and Medhine in the West to, now in proper Sudan, weakened much more than expected until the courageous and mythical throne-name Tewodros, attempted to re-establish it again in 1860th.
So the most intensified migration period of the Oromo is mainly between the year 1540 – 1640, Libna Dingil (r.1508-1540) to Susinyos 1632, latter Fasilidas and during the Warlords era.
“Oromo animosity toward the Amhara, encouraged by the Italians, became so bad that the Amhara, according to Gazzera, were reduced to the level of slaves.” [Sbacchi, p.158, 1985].
“The colonial administrators judged the Amhara proud and xenophobic but recognized that they had been the best fighting troops against the Italians, if properly trained, they believed they would fight for Italy too… the Ministry of Africa envisioned that the Amhara would constitute the best elements of a black army,..” [Sbacchi, p.159, 1985].
“In Harar alone the Muslim religious personnel received state salaries amounting to 100,000 lire for 47 cadis and 40 dagna. … During the period of Italian rule in Ethiopia 50 stone mosques were built. 16 restored and numberless mud-hut mosques erected all over the country. …the Italians encouraged the gradual decay of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church by limiting the number of Christian churches and priests…” [Sbacchi, p.163, 1985].
If we genuinely characterise and see back the Oromo history, despite differences of colour and race, their migration history is almost similar with that of South African British white settlers who had invaded respective countries at different centuries using their own invading means and tactics; notably Gada in our case and Preaching of Christianity Bible in South Africa. So, the good thing is that, now, South Africa with its different ethnic backgrounds and past problems claimed as “The New Rainbow Nation” while Ethiopia became “Ethnic Hatred Nation” of our century. Thanks to Mandela, the great man of the century and death to TPLF and OLF criminals. So, OLF or any other similar sectarian groups can’t and won’t, have the right to decide against others. If you are wise enough, we can live equally, democratically and peacefully together in Ethiopia, but we can’t let you destroy Ethiopia any more. Enough is enough!!
Hence, what my opinion and most fellow Ethiopians on this issue is not in the way TPLF and OLF think? We believe, we lived together for about four centuries and we both suffered by the hands of backward administration and dictatorial government, and now by the sectarian and racist groups lead by Meles Zenawi. So, we must fight such sectarian groups together so as to live democratically, equally, peacefully and harmoniously by creating new and modern broad based democratic political framework, which would help us to elevate the suffering of our people, regardless of our ethnic background and religion.
This is actually not to undermine the years we lived together nor forget the immense role played by the proud Oromo Ethiopians in the history of Ethiopian political arena. The proud Oromo Ethiopians had contributed an enormous contribution to our country Ethiopia and paid their irreplaceable live and fallen down together with their brethrens: Amhara, Tigre, Sidama, etc., while defending Ethiopia, from any sort of attacks waged at different times in our history, as well as, suffered by the hands’ of the then backward and feudal system of administration and dictatorial government like any of us, regardless of our race and ethnic/religion backgrounds, and today by the racist and mercenary group Meles lead TPLF.
The sectarian TPLF, for the last many years as a rebel and now as tyrant and racist government in the Addis Ababa palace wages different kinds of wars against another innocent Ethiopians and on Ethiopian history by creating subservant “ethnic named groups”, such us OPDO, but all are servants of one sectarian Meles lead TPLF to be used for its political means, to disintegrate Ethiopia and its people.
The current tone we are hearing from such irresponsible individuals “Addis Ababa belongs to Oromo, or Addis Ababa is the Capital City of Oromia, or Oromo Nation” is nothing, but are all a mere extension of TPLF’s political tactic and strategy to create a very dangerous conflict between the Oromo society group and other Ethiopians who are very proud of being Ethiopian. TPLF and its mercenary leader Meles believes that it stays in power last long if it plays this kind of tactics at the expense of others, notably by weakening and eradicating the Amhara society. Otherwise, one who is in his right sense would have not gone to that extent and provoked others on this malformed history of “Addis Ababa belongs to Oromo or destroying others to build a new Oromo Nation”.
It is recalled that in 2003 there was a protest against the transfer of OPDO’s office from Addis Ababa to what TPLF and its associate calls it Adama. The fact of the matter is, as OPDO was created to serve as a tool to TPLF’s political end, OPDO has no any political platform of its own nor have the know how to create a different political platform which could help Ethiopians out of such current political and economical turmoil. So, it is up to TPLF to decide who would do what and go else where?
What was more astonishing was that seemingly respected and prominent political figures of Ethiopia, like the then Oromo National Congress (ONC) leader, PhD. Merrira Gudenia and Negasso Gidada (PhD) and others had organized the protest of “Addis Ababa belongs to Oromia office. The involvement of such respected person in this modern world was extremely frustrating, an embarrassing and heartbreaking for most Ethiopians. Because, although TPLF’s ethnic politics encouraged him/them to create an ethnic group ONC/or any other, most of us were thinking that their political vision is beyond creating ONC and is proud Oromo Ethiopian who could contribute yet a lot in the effort to save Ethiopia from such TPLF ethnic apartheid policy and political crisis. Besides, as he is political scientist [unlike TPLF’s leaders and their associate], I was thinking that the ethic of truth and justice is there [with him] and would knew very well what the true Oromo history in Ethiopia was/is?
While the era of Oromo clans first migration to Ethiopia is vividly known to the world and by our people, we Ethiopians had never been interested to discuss the history of Oromo clans’, group of society, migration that had had changed the demography of Ethiopia so dramatically. Because, that had already gone and done in the 16th and 17th centuries.
What is more important now is that we are the people of “ONE NATION, Ethiopia” and shall think in a modern and democratic way of thinking. But never ever be and couldn’t be an Oromo Nation within a Nation “Ethiopia”. Despite, lack of visionary and democratic leader, Ethiopia is too wide and naturally gifted enough to accommodate and be a good mother to all of us. We had enough agony inflicted with the formation of a spurium ethnic state within a second class citizen ethnic state already under the regime of the tyrant and racist TPLF Meles.
In that old era, the then leaders were much enthusiastic when they subdue a rival by appeasement, and, when necessary with arm of fist, by coercion. In fact, that had happened every where including today’s Western Democratic Countries. However, the difference between us and today’s’ western democratic countries are that they are using to live in the environment of their current century while we are taken back by TPLF to an era of apartheid of others and beyond.
“Ethiopia’s Federal Government has once again failed to write a legislation that would materialize the Oromia Regional State’s right over the capital Addis Ababa.” Capital, this was a statement by kirubel Tadesse, last month.
Capital also quoted former president PhD Negasso Gidada as saying, “It is overdue and we have been, for quite some time, demanding the proclamation. It seems that it is finally coming this year and it is a good thing.”
The constitution and proclamation in which both these individuals are quoting and referring are not a constitution of the Ethiopian people. Instead, it is a constitution of TPLF and OLF that was devised in the bush deviously with no any representation of the main stakeholder of the subject matter. These individuals are very poisonous like a green snicks in green grassland. When you think that the grass is so green and comfortable to walk the walk, the poisonous green snick bite you over a sudden. i.e., they are multifaceted in character and believe. When you feel that they are proud Ethiopian of Oromo origin they betray you and priorities their narrow ethnic politics. There is no such thing in the culture of Amhara, we die with our words!!
Don’t forget that we have a blood that boils spill over; it is a matter of time and conditions. The original names Finfine and Adama are nothing to Oromo clans, these names were used centuries before the Oromo first clan moved in into Ethiopia in 16th, and both of them were derived from pure Ethiopic language. Today’s Gondar was Begemder and before more Dembiya. We can change the name at different times and situation. As a matter of fact, until very recently the region now “Welega” was the heart land of proper Sidama. For that matter, you can’t bring any map that refutes this reality or a string of lucid historical fact. In fact, as Meles has no any future in Ethiopia, he is trying his best to eliminate the name Addis Ababa from the heart and mind of Ethiopians; for that he uses his constitution as a pretext. Even at this moment, at this hour, at this minute a person found in the so-called Oromia region considered to be Amhara is indiscriminately attacked by both TPLF/OPDO and OLF cadres and their co-criminals groups. Even, a Uni and College teachers; if it not said exaggerated; the only person who feels safe in those areas are only those who are either affiliated with TPLF’s ethnic politics or members of their families.
At the same token, and needless to mention this, Addis Ababa is equally a capital city of all Ethiopians, i.e., Oromo, Amhara, Sidama, Tigre, etc., but one can’t have the right to claim a special status on Addis Ababa and its’ peripherals. This is completely unacceptable and intolerable. In fact, as currently every region is under TPLF sectarian and racist rule, Addis Ababa and its residents are also suffering under the hands of the TPLF’s cadres.
When it comes to the general issue: i.e., to bring democratic equality, peace and prosperity in Ethiopia, each and every ethnic political group should go out of Addis Ababa and its peripheries. Because, Addis Ababa should be left to a broad based multi-party political parties who have the courage and determination to work for democratic politics, economical and social justice and equality as well as vision for sovereign and strong Ethiopia. In other words, if tribal/ethnic politics is allowed – - – offcourse shall not be!! – - – to exist in Ethiopia [it is to mean after TPLF regime], they shouldn’t go beyond contesting with the broad based political parties, in their respective autonomous regions, for only the local governmental seats.
To make it very clear, tribal political groups like TPLF or for that matter any other else should not be allowed to go to Addis Ababa with its backward ethnic politics to rule Ethiopians. Their contest should be limited; it should be only in regional level, like Tigray, for only the autonomous Tigray regional governmental seats.
Meanwhile, ethnic federalism form of government does not and won’t work in a country like Ethiopia. I’m not going to discuses this issue in this article, but a true devolution of power to all autonomous regions shall be realized. But not like the one we see under TPLF subjugation and supremacy over others. The central government seats shall be left for only broad based multi-party political parties as well as to independent individuals’ politicians who have modern democratic Ethiopian vision that respect and treat all its citizens equally and a bide by the rule of law.
Sadly, TPLF is ruling us by the name of a front that could neither have any Ethiopian vision nor the political and constitutional legitimacy to rule a country like Ethiopia in a situation where by more than eighty different ethnic groups are excluded from their country’s politics.
At the same token, unlike TPLF/EPRDF, a single proud Ethiopian has both legal and political legitimacy to assume the highest political position in Ethiopia than any front of two or three ethnics group could claim together, in which such a front should not be called and considered as a political party.
To take you back to my topic, let me ask a simple question! Who had chosen Bahir Dar to be the city for Amhara and Adama to be TPLF‘s Oromia? Is there any one who is saying it was the Amhara or Oromo respectively? Why not Addis Ababa? Is that not TPLF do this and that and ordered the so-called Amhara People’s Democratic Movement [APDM] to go to Bahir Dar while TPLF’s main office was in one of the scared complex building of Addis Ababa until recently? Hence, we should not be amassed if TPLF send OPDO to “South of Bali”, the place where the Borana and Baraytuma of the first Oromo two clans started to migrate to the other parts of Ethiopia in the 16th century like the white settlers settled in South Africa and other African countries.
If I once mentioned about APDM, at one time its’ assigned leader Tamirat Laynie was not only a tool for TPLF, but also those who knew him very well, were saying him “he was the personal intelligence “jero tsebi” of Meles Zenawi too.” Meanwhile, once the president of TPLF, Dr. Negaso Gidada, was frequently saying, “instead of going a year to China for any political make up or renewal process, it would rather be far better to go to Tigray/dedebit for one week.” Such flattering after his boss doesn’t deter Meles from using and throwing him away and each of his tools, after using their services. You might have noted what Meles was boosting about the victory of Ethiopian army over EPLF in the 1998-2000 war? He was saying, “This victory was achieved because of matured political leadership.”
What this instead reminds me was that, the then Dekialula’s hero Siye Abraha used to say, during the then war with Derg and after, whenever he used to give any communiqué about their attack, in their radio, “this military victory was achieved due to the leadership of Marxist Leninist League Tigray [MLLT].” For him, it was neither TPLF nor EPRDF, but it was Meles and Abayi as they were/are the MLLT leaders. But now, we can see how Meles had thrown him/them away because of the power struggle within them, but never ever because of neither Ethiopian sovereignty nor democratic equality issues. Another friend of him, Mr. Gebru Asrat, was the director general of the Blue Nile Transport Company of TPLF that is still ripping the Addis Ababa to Gojjam-Gonder region people until he was dismissed from TPLF on similar personal issue.
So, to save Ethiopia from such political crisis, disintegration, and disproportionate discrimination we have to join hands together to remove Ethiopian immediate enemy TPLF and its leader Meles. If we work together at least … at least … in a tactically level to remove the sectarian TPLF from the central part of Ethiopia, we can have the means to consolidate Ethiopian position so as to solve the rest of our political, economical and social problems including the sovereignty of Ethiopia.
In this regard, I was wondering of the Paris conference resolution of the 1998/9, which was called, by EPRP and All Ethiopia Socialist Movement (MEISON) to join hands with Meles in the then war against EPLF. That resolution was one of the terrible political mistakes committed by the anti TPLF political groups in the Ethiopian political arena. Because, because of that war sympathy offered to Meles by the Paris conference, Meles and Siye had got a chance to recruit so many hero Ethiopians and managed to perish them in the firing of two directions, believed to be 120, 000.
That is how Meles do his political assassin against Ethiopia and Ethiopians even including the so-called fanawegie political parties. Mind you, I’m not considering the invasion of EPLF as an outside invading force like the Somalia of the 60th and 70th nor see Meles differ from EPLF of Isayass. So, if we believed that Meles is Isayass towards to Ethiopia, we would had fought our immediate enemy Meles and his associate first, and then Ethiopian strategic enemy EPLF. If we manage to control the “part” which Isayass and Meles call it now Ethiopia [but which is now also under EPLF/TPLF Meles control], it would be relatively an easy task … peacefully, legally including with international diplomacy to bring back Ethiopian sea get access Asseb and its peripheries as well as the Afar region, which is in war since 1991 with EPLF and TPLF for they determined to remain proud Ethiopians. If not peacefully, Ethiopia has the legal and historical rights to defend its natural sovereignty and break the military arms of both TPLF & EPLF.
Even, the “other part” of Ethiopia, which is now called Eritrea, will come to its Motherland shortly after Isayass and Meles gone. After all, although, Meles forced UN to be involved in the seemingly 1993 referendum, UN can’t denounce its resolution 390V of the December 1950 and intervene in the internal political afire of its founding member state, Ethiopia. But, to change this course of event, the so-called Ethiopian politicians should stop and think twice how we are currently perusing Ethiopian politics.
Of course, no one deny the sacrifices Ethiopians like Dr. Tesfay Debessay and others did, till this minute, but the political trend of the past would not lead us an inch forward in the struggle to liberate our Ethiopia from the collaborated attacks of EPLF/TPLF and from Ethiopian historical enemy countries. EPRP’s way of politics, which is better to say gossip politics and blackmailing, does not help our cause. It is already a lost force and gone for ever not to influence Ethiopian anymore! EPRP came as a political party before anyone else, and perished that Strong generation with a wrong tactics and strategy consequently this had given comfort to TPLF. When it fails, it then sows the seed of gossip and blackmailing which results an all out failure and infighting all over the democratic camps.
To create a strong political force that challenge EPLF/TPLF and others, we must have the courage to identify and confess on our past political mistakes and weakness so as to not to repeat the same mistake now and then. To be frank with, creating a new front now and then/again and again/ won’t be a solution by itself, if the so-called political leaders have no the courage and the know how to lead and work together in such political environment [front], as it was demonstrated in the past, the front would be rather turn out to be fertile soil for opposition forces to fight within itself and even create political deadlock for future reconciliation not to take place to work together once more.
So, each and every anti TPLF political party or group must have a strong Ethiopian and democratic visions and an internal political party struggle rules and principles which could give them a very wide political right to its members to evaluate and discuss on different issues so as to manoeuvre the political crisis that may arise because of miss-understanding and some policy differences within their party/group.
One of the main reasons for the creation of factions after factions and front after front is because of lack of such political mechanism and experience within each political party. If you first don’t have this experience within your party/group, you can’t do any constructive contribution with others either on a wider or minimum common program bases. This is the fundamental problem of our country’s politics, full stop!!!
But, although, all are responsible for the past unproductive political trends and its failures, one has to stop and learn form the past political failure and should be obliged to change the style of the political work as well as the frequently tested failure leadership. Being in the lower committee level or be member of a committee doesn’t hinder to contribute in all aspects of the tasks unless and otherwise we do have another hidden personal motive to achieve.
The bitter animosity created by EPRP towards to others democratic parties such as on Motherland party members in USA, Europe and in the Sudan, the confrontation with Col. Goshu Weldie and his party Medhin and later towards to Kinijit were vivid examples never been forgotten.
Inline to this, the ample condition in which the Council Of Alternative Forces for Peace And Democracy in Ethiopia (CAFPDE) missed during the time when the American government invited the Council in mid 90th to discuss on the reality of the political conditions on ground was one of the best examples how the so-called politicians are so week and problematic. At that crucial time, EPRPs’ refusal to be represented as one opposition party council lead by Dr. Beyne Petros had killed all opposition efforts exerted for very long years. As result, Dr. Beyne Petros he himself had pushed aside the Council and tried to negotiate only for his constitute in the Council, which hadn’t bear fruit either. Now, even after very long 15 years, we are unable to get the heart and mind of TPLF’s Godfather, the American government, to revisit their unfair foreign policy in which it is killing us as well as Ethiopia.
Sadly, EPRP’s mistake with regard to the then Council was not only its refusal to be represented as one strong opposition force, as the American government advice us in order to proceed with the negotiation and achieve a result, but, while EPRP accepted the exclusion of Col. Goshu’s Medhin from the then planned conference, under the perception of US that it is so nationalist on Ethiopian issue and so influential inside, it was accusing the Council for it had not accommodated OLF’s remote demand of secession in its minimum political program too. These are some of the realities in which neither they deny nor alter it.
From this perspective, I afraid to say that our politicians know a bite of the real history how many times Stalin had waged wars against Poland, Finish peoples and on all Baltic States to bring them all into Russian rule and the American terrible civil war of 1861 -1865 caused by the secession attempt of eleven Southern States from rest? I shall leave it to you to evaluate the historical different between the above-mentioned two countries and our historical Ethiopia facts that existed for more than three thousand years as a sovereign state.
During the 2nd World War (WW II), Stalin officially asked Churchill to accept that all Eastern Europe Countries shall be under Soviet Union Rule. As the events and the military balances were changing so rapidly, the question raised by Stalin was so tough to Churchill to answer “No”. Instead, Churchill had preferred to resolve the issue with diplomatic means which he had tried indeed. However, when Stalin knew that Churchill’s diplomacy approach was to buy time, then he had changed his approach and acted as if he gave up his idea and instead acted as befriends of the West and focused how to fight Hitler jointly. As a result Churchill was so pleased; however, what Stalin did was that he asked all Polishes Nationalist, Military background men and others who resided in England to come to Soviet Union and take the military training so that they could defend their country, Poland. In fact, Churchill never had speculated that Stalin was doing something wrong with these Military Men, then, he sent them all to Soviet Union. Then, Stalin brainwashed these Military Generals men and others, as if they are going to take more military training to defend their country Poland, however, he secretly ordered his generals to take them and killed them all on April 1940 at a place called “Katyn” i.e., where the Polish President, the National Bank president, the Air Force general and many other 25 very high key politicians Plane’s Crashed and perished them very recently. The Katyn killing is still called the “War Time Massacre.” During this massacre, it is expected as many as seven thousand Polish Military generals, Artist, and Academicians, and historians been perished. This has been revealed when the German army over a sudden found the mass grave in 1943 which Russia admitted this very recently and offered officially the Polish people and the Nation a deep apology for the crime Stalin had committed against the Katyn Massacre.
At the same time, Stalin was trying to invade Finland. Unfortunately, as the then Finish people’s leader was extremely so nationalist and hero he had openly told to his people that Finland is going to be invaded by Stalin and asked each and every Finish citizen to be a guardian of his country, Finland. This way, he had resisted Stalin’s three invading attempts.
Long after WW II, i.e., in 1968, to make sure that Stalin’s policy been implemented in Eastern Europe, Soviet Union had invaded the then Czechoslovakia which is still known as the “Prague Massacre”. All Eastern Europe countries such as: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania, all of which had been subjugated after WW II by the policy of Stalin towards them.
The reason why I mentioned this is that, if Stalin was practically of such character to other nations and nationalists, where TPLF and OLF do brought the question of secession and threatens Ethiopian survival? The answer is that, Stalin had neither accepted in principle nor materialised question of secession of nations/nationalists. Rather, it was a word on a paper that was set to confuse others to threaten their people and nation as TPLF and OLF do our country now.
In fact, one may ask how then the then Soviet Union dissolution into independent states? The answer is very simple. i.e., When the then General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Mikhail Gorbachev, was taken to some where, outside of the city of Moscow to unknown place due to the attempted Military Coup of Aug 1991, the then Mayor of the City of Moscow, Boris Yeltsin, had refused to abandon Moscow to the then Coup leader and further declared that he wouldn’t allow any office in City of Moscow to CPSU and gone further and said that “we are independent of the CPSU, and we won’t allow any office in our City, Moscow.” Then, as there was also a feeling that others states are poor in many was, the Mayor of Moscow, Boris Yeltsin, found it easy to tell these regions/states to declare their respective independence and indirectly, or by default, excluded these states from the much accumulated natural resources of now Russia proper. Besides, what has made it very easy for the sub junior leaders to declare their independences was that Soviet Union was original designed on Ethnic Federalism and State Socialism Structures like the one we have now in Ethiopia. That is why we have to always careful with what TPLF and OLF are doing behind the scene?
Although, 95% of Ethiopians who are now involving in their country political affairs are believed to be from non-politically backgrounds, the war waged by TPLF leaders and its collaborators against Ethiopians became a matter of life or death. Unfortunately, unlike other countries, our University academicians and political scientists are scaring, as they always kept scared to say a word when TPLF raids them like a four legs horse, and threaten Ethiopian sovereignty in unprecedented manner. They have no the courage to say a word when more than 20 millions of people suffered due to lack of a piece of bread for a day, in a country where in 1991 Meles boosted in front of media [at the time of the interview with the two Professors] as he would feed this people three times a day within lass than ten years. Our academicians of the national university do neither comment the then empty word of yesterday nor the tragedy that empty word had created after ten years and since.
Moreover, when more than four thousand farmers came through that very long desert on foot, from Gojjam, to Addis Ababa to express their grievance towards TPLF’s land policy, our academicians didn’t say any word about it either, let leave alone to lead us in the politics and history they learnt by the money of their fellow Ethiopian farmers.
I was seeing a documentary film and reading some written document how the late president of Egypt, Gemalla Abdelnasur, was completely sleepless for very long years during building the Aswan dam on our Nile River. In the middle of the night, he was wondering here and there inside his room to device things how to create a viable Egypt for the generations to come? His kids needed to eat diner and spend few minutes with him, but he was absolutely preoccupied and restless with time constraints with this daunting national task. On the same token, we used to hear that Meles Zenawi did his two degrees assuming the highest office of the land and use the rest of his time to dismantle historic Ethiopia? “yitadelutal enj aytagelutm”
The current Addis Ababa belongs to Oromo issue is almost far worsen than the slogans of the then Pretoria whites used to exclude the blacks from the big cities of South Africa and its peripheries. This is like what our Ethiopians put it “behwla yemetsa ayn awetsa.”
The objective of this short commentary is only to insight some historical facts on the Oromo history in Ethiopia for further reading, for those interested on the issue, strictly for only academic perspectives; otherwise the racism and exclusion polices are better left to TPLF as it is futile to our generation.
In fact, what is more important to me and other fellow Ethiopians is that, to overthrow TPLF lead racist group and create conducive condition for common political consensus on our common future fate and forge a viable solution how to create a democratic, peaceful and prosper Ethiopia that could serve and respect all of its citizens equally regardless of our ethnic group or religion. But, fighting in our past history and flooding with plenty of claims and counter claims to exclude other Ethiopians from their national city, Addis Ababa and other parts of their country or killing as what is going on in some parts of the country just now by TPLF’s cadres and its collaborators is extremely unacceptable, intolerable and inexcusable mistake that tantamount to an incitement of genocide. So far, there are many reliable records of genocide acts effectively executed by TPLF/OPDO and OLF since they put Ethiopians as their subject in 1991 and before.
Our ancestors paid the highest price in defending Ethiopia form colonialist attack and from other different anti-Ethiopian forces. However, Meles lead sectarian TPLF and OLF propaganda and their collaborators are trying their best to disintegrate Ethiopia and its people by creating their malformed 100-year’s history as their propaganda strategy against Ethiopia. But, whatsoever the ups and downs are so challenging/daunting to save Ethiopia from such tribalist and anti-Ethiopia groups, Ethiopia and Ethiopians shall live forever and will play prominent political role for the creation of Modern and democratic Africa as well as would have a big role to play in the international political arena after the inevitable removable of TPLF and its collaborators.
Those paragraphs which I had quoted from both stated books shouldn’t be violated, as it is all the rights of M. Abir and A. Sbacchi.