The Sun Also Rises – Alemayehu G. Mariam

March 7th, 2011 Print Print Email Email

Creeping Youthbellion and Youthvolution in Africa and the Middle East (more…)

Creeping Youthbellion and Youthvolution in Africa and the Middle East

“When the sun rises, it rises for everyone,” goes the old saying. The sun that rose over tyranny in North Africa will not set at the edge of the Sahel; it will shine southward on the African savannah and rainforest. The wind of change blowing across the Middle East will soon cut a wide swath clear to the Atlantic Coast of West Africa from the Red Sea. The sun that lifted the darkness that had enveloped Tunisia, Egypt and Libya for decades can now be seen rising just over the Ethiopian horizon. The sun rises to greet a new generation of Ethiopians.

Today we are witnessing a second African independence, an independence from thugtatorship no less dramatic or volcanic than the upheavals of oppressed peoples that overthrew the yoke of colonialism one-half century ago. In 1960, British PM Harold McMillan warned his fraternity of European imperial powers: “The wind of change is blowing through this [African] continent, and whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact. We must all accept it as a fact, and our national policies must take account of it.”

The wind of change that has kicked up a sandstorm of youth rebellion and revolt in North Africa has laid bare the ghastly facts of oppression and youth despair to global consciousness. Arab and African youths are crying out for freedom, democracy, human rights and equal economic opportunity. The vast majority of the uneducated, under-educated and mis-educated African youths have no hope for the future. Legions of Arab youths with college degrees, advanced professional and technical training waste away the best years of their lives because they have few economic opportunities. They too see a void in their future. African and Arab youths have had enough, and they are rising up like the sun to liberate themselves and their societies from the clutches of thugs. The outcome of the youth uprisings is foreordained. As Sam Cooke, the great pioneer of soul music sang, “It’s been a long, a long time coming/ But I know a change is gonna come, oh yes it will…”

But there are some who cynically argue that the type of volcanic popular uprisings sweeping North Africa cannot happen in Ethiopia. They offer many reasons. They say the thugtators in Ethiopia have used every means at their disposal to keep the people benighted, divided and antagonized. They point to the primitive state of information technology in Ethiopia as proof of a deliberate official strategy to prevent Ethiopian youth from accessing the Internet freely to learn new ideas and create cyber civic societies. (Ethiopia has the second lowest (after Sierra Leone) internet penetration rate in Africa.) They say Zenawi has bought off the best and the brightest of Ethiopia’s youth with cash, jobs, special educational opportunities and privileges just to keep them off the streets and happy as a clam. (It seems Ethiopia’s youth are a pressurized powder keg.) They say Ethiopia’s young people (who comprise the majority of the population) have no frame of historical reference and that Zenawi has brainwashed them into believing that he is their demi-god and savior. (It is possible to fool some of the youths all of the time, but it is impossible to fool all of the youths all of the time.) They say Zenawi’s vast security network of informants, spies and thugs will suppress any youth or other uprising before it could gather momentum. They say Zenawi has permeated the society with so much fear and loathing that it is nearly impossible for individuals or groups to come together, build consensus and articulate a unified demand for change. They say Zenawi has created so much ethnic antagonism in the society that he can cling to power indefinitely by playing his divide-and-rule game and raising the specter of genocide and civil war. Regardless of what anyone says, Zenawi has made it crystal clear what he will do to cling to power. He will “crush with full force” anyone who opposes him electorally or otherwise.

The Survival Principle of Thugtatorships

African thugtators will do anything to cling to power. Hosni Mubarak used a state of emergency decree to cling to power for three decades. When he was deposed from his Pharaonic throne, there were 30,000 political prisoners rotting in his dungeons. Ben Ali in Tunisia did as he pleased for nearly a quarter of a century. Gadhafi’s actions in Libya today offer a hard object lesson on what thugtators will do to cling to power. He continues to use helicopter gunships and MiG fighter planes to bomb and strafe civilians. He is using his private army of thugs and mercenaries to commit unspeakable violence on Libyan citizens. He has offered to buy off Libyans for $400 per household and pledged a 150 percent increase in government workers’ wages if they stop the uprising. They told him “to immerse it in water and drink it” (or “to stuff it…” in the English vernacular.) Gadhafi’s son, Saif al-Islam, has threatened to dismember Libya and plunge it into a civil war and “fight to the last minute, until the last bullet, until the last drop of my blood.” Gadhafi is doing everything in his power to cling to power. The only unanswered question is whether he will resort to the “chemical option”. On March 16, 1988, toward the end of the Iraq-Iran war, Saddam Hussien used chemical weapons against the Kurds in Halabja killing thousands. Will Gadhafi use chemical weapons against Libyans in March 2011 as his regime comes to its long overdue end? Whether Zenawi will follow Gadhafi’s scorched earth policy to cling to power remains to be seen, but careful analysis of his actions, public statements, interviews, speeches, writings, ideological perspective and the irrepressible and self-consuming hatred he has publicly displayed against those who have opposed him over the past 20 years suggests that he will likely follow the tragic wisdom of the old aphorism, “Apre moi, le deluge” (After me, the flood).

But thugtators, trapped in their bubbles and echo chambers, often overestimate their prowess and abilities. “Brotherly Leader” Gadhafi thought he was so powerful and the Libyan people so cowardly that he did not expect in his wildest imagination they would dare rise up and challenge him. He was proven wrong when Libyans broke the chains of crippling fear Gadhafi had put on them for 42 years. Gadhafi thought he could prevent Libyan youths from communicating and coordinating with each other by shutting down social media such as Facebook. Libya’s young revolutionaries proved to be more creative; they used Muslim dating websites to coordinate their activities. Now Gadhafi has completely shut down Internet service in the country believing he can control and distort the flow of information coming out of Libya. Gadhafi’s murderous thugs and mercenaries have been repelled time and again by a ragtag army of Libyan shopkeepers, waiters, welders, engineers, students and the unemployed. Despite Gadhafi’s talk of tribal war, Libyans have closed ranks to wage war on thugtatorship. After 42 years of ignorant ramblings in the Green Book, Gadhafi and his Jamahiriya (“republic ruled by the masses”) are in their death throes. 

The Bouzazi Factor

Mohamed Bouzazi was the young Tunisian who burned himself to protest Ben Ali’s thugtatorship. Bouzazi’s desperate act became the spark that created the critical mass of popular uprising which has caused a chain reaction throughout North Africa and the Middle East. The tipping point for change in any country cannot be predicted with certainty. In Tunisia, Bouzazi was literally the “fissile material” that catalyzed the popular uprising. In Egypt, a number of factors worked together to get rid of Mubarak’s thugtatorship. The young Egyptians who led the revolt were well educated and tech savvy and used their knowledge to organize effectively. The Egyptian military maintained neutrality and opposition elements were able to build consensus on the need to remove Mubarak and his henchmen from power after three decades. In Libya, the people just had enough of a raving lunatic running their lives.

Change is a universal imperative and it will come to Ethiopia as it has for its northern neighbors. The coming change in Ethiopia may not necessarily follow any existing template. It will originate from an unexpected source and spread in unexpected ways. The tipping point in Ethiopia will likely revolve around three factors: 1) the clarity, truthfulness and persuasiveness of the message of change delivered to the people, 2) the unity in the voices of the messengers who deliver the message, and 3) the context in which the message of change is communicated to the people. Simply stated, a convergence of democratic forces and a consensus on a clear message of change is necessary to create a critical mass for change in Ethiopia.

Overcoming the Fear Factor

The one common thread in all of the uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East is that the people overcame their fears. The thugtators waged decades long campaigns of psychological warfare to instill fear and loathing in the hearts and minds of their peoples. They people believed for decades that the thugtators to be strong and invincible, untouchable and unaccountable. Recent evidence shows that all thugtatorships have feet of clay. The moment the Libyan people unshackled themselves from 42 years of crippling fear — the kind of fear President Roosevelt described as “nameless, unreasoning, unjustified, terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance — they were able to see Gadhafi for what he truly is — a thug. Ditto for Ben Ali and Hosni Mubarak. Change came to Tunisia, Egypt and Libya not because the thugtators had changed but because the people had changed. They were no longer afraid! They found out the true meaning of the old saying, “Fear makes the wolf bigger than he is.”

The Hubris of Thugtators

Thugtators believe they can cling to power by eliminating their opposition, and particularly those who helped them get into power. They ward off potential challengers by keeping their military weak and appointing their cronies and henchmen to leadership positions. They believe they are loved, respected and admired by their people. Gadhafi said, “All my people love me!” They don’t. They hate him. Gadhafi convinced himself that all Libyans are happy under his rule.” They are not. Libya has a Sovereign Wealth Fund of $70 billion and nearly as much has been frozen by the American, British and Swiss governments. Yet the vast majority of the 6 million Libyans have difficulty making ends meet. Gadhafi has squandered much of the oil money buying arms, financing terrorists, seeking to develop weapons of mass destruction, giving it away to other countries to increase his prestige and paying blood money for acts of terrorism he personally ordered. He paid $3 billion to the survivors of the bombing of Pan Am 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in which 270 people died. Zenawi said he won the last election by 99.6 percent because the people love his party. They “consider themselves and the EPRDF as two sides of a coin” and “nothing can ever shake their unwavering support for our organization,” he said in his victory speech last May. He congratulated the people for “giv[ing] us the mandate through your votes” and patronized them for their “high sense of judgment and fairness” in voting for his party.

Regardless of what thugtators say or do, they will always remain weak and anxiety-ridden because they are in it for the money and not to serve the people. State power is the means by which they pick clean the economic bones of their countries. Thugtators are incapable of anticipating or understanding the need for change. Because they lack a vision for the future and the courage to do what needs to be done in the present, they are always swept away in a flash flood of popular uprising as Ben Ali, Mubarak and Gadhafi have found out lately.

Foolishly Riding the Tiger

President Obama needs to realize that it is not enough to talk about being “on the right side of history”. The U.S. must first do the right thing. For the Obama Administration to talk about “regime alteration” instead of regime change in the Middle East and North Africa today is not being on the right side of history. It is just being plain wrong! President John F. Kennedy said that being on the right side of history is being on the side of the “people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery and helping them help themselves.” In his inaugural speech President Kennedy said:

To those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom– and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.

To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required–not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

The lesson of the spreading uprisings for African and Middle Eastern thugtators is a simple one best paraphrased in Gandhi’s immortal words: “There have been thugtators and murderers who have foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger. But in the end, they found themselves inside the tiger’s belly. Think of it, always.”

The weekly commentaries of the author are available at:

Alemayehu G. Mariam
Professor of political science, CSU San Bernardino

  1. Compromise
    | #1

    Dear Professor,
    do you really believe that the revolution will come to Ethiopia? There are many factors, which you also mentioned, to make it unlikely. Above all the face-off between the pro-unity Amhara and the pro-independence Oromo is the elephant in the room, which is usually evaded by you, but exploited by Weyane!

    Is the Amhara Vs Oromo face-off a hinderance to the possible revolution in Ethiopia?

    Yes, now, it is the time for the revolution against any colonizer, tyrannt or dictator, be it in Ethiopia or some where else. Almost all citizens and nations in the Ethiopian empire are now calling for the revolution as the best instrument to get rid of the fascist regime. Of course that is why Weyane is doing everything under the sky to prevent us from revolting. We know that as long as Weyane is in power, we will suffer not only as refugee in diaspora, but also as slaves at home in Oromia. Unfortunately, the Amhara-Oromo face-off is yet a hinderance to the possible revolution, i.e. it is a hinderance to the necessary change of the tyrannt regime. It seems that the Amhara-Oromo face-off (neutralizing each other) is a very good historical advantage/opportunity, which Weyane got to rule over Ethiopia without any serious challenge and this face-off didn’t get an appropriate solution. Weyane survives and thrives mainly by dividing and polarizing Amhara vs Oromo as well as by sowing fear and mistrust among/between them. We do still hear/read that both camps (the Amhara camp and the Oromo camp) do live under a grave fear and mistrust of each other, so that they seem to prefer Weyane’s further rule to the possibility of allowing each other take over any sort of power.

    But, I think a well co-ordinated FDG (fincila diddaa garbummaa = non-violent popular uprising) of the Oromo people in co-operation with that of the other nations in that cursed empire is still the best way of a struggle to get rid of the fascist Weyane. Actually the Oromo people do have nothing to lose, if the expected revolution comes. One thing, beside many, in favour of the Oromo liberation movement, is the fact that Weyane will leave Finfinne palace, only after securing its goal, i.e after securing an independence of Tigrai. Of course together with such move of Weyane, Oromia’s chance to get its independence is high. Because of this reason, both the Amhara conservative feudal lords and the Western protectors of the Ethiopian empire don’t want to see Weyane being cornered. They surely know that cornering Weyane is almost tantamount to disintegrating the empire. That is why, it is not the Oromo people, but firstly the Weyane itself, secondly the colonial minded Amhara conservative elites and thirdly their Western handlers, who do fear the coming of the revolution to Ethiopia. Thus, the democratic Amhara forces pushing for the revolution are not as such dangerous for the Oromo liberation movement. Even if not Oromian independence per referendum, we can achieve Oromian autonomy through a genuine federalism within an Ethiopian union (achieve the national freedom of the Oromo people) as a result of the possible revolution.

    That is why Weyane cadres are nowadays very busy to hinder the revolution from taking place in the Ethiopian empire by using the fact that the peoples of the empire are not homogeneous, but different (the colonized and the colonizer), as an instrument of division and polarization. If the scare tactics, which they try to use, hinder the revolution, the only option we the colonized people do have is the anti-colonial armed struggle, on which we have to concentrate and invest most, even though it is a very difficult job, given the little support we do have from the international community. For the revolution possibilly not to take place, unfortunately also the pro-independence freedom fighters (the Oromo, Ogaden, Sidama… liberation forces) and the pro-unity freedom fighters (the Amhara, Gurage, Harari… patriotic forces) are still mistrusting each other. Both want to secure the direction of the move after the freedom from Weyane (to secure the result after the revolution). The first bloc wants no reversal of the already achieved victory of a limited cultural autonomy on the way towards national independence (self-determination), whereas the second bloc wants to be sure that the empire stays intact and possiblly the process will be reversed back to the unitary country.

    But, why should these people worry too much about the situation after the revolution? Is the caution regarding the unity of the empire, which is lamented by the pro-unity freedom fighters, different from the scare tactics used by the Weyane cadres? The cadres go to Oromo forums and tell us the “worse will come; Amhara will take over and there will never be the reality of Aayyo Oromia, if you push for the revolution”; and then they go to Amhara forums and tell them “take care, the worse will come; OLF can take over and it will be the end of Imiyee Ethiopia, if you make a revolution”. Both Aayyo Oromia and Imiye Ethiopia are actually taken hostage by the Weyane. Whenever Oromo force is stronger, Weyanes threaten with the possibility of dismantling Oromia; and whenever Amhara force is stronger, they threaten with dismembering Ethiopia.

    Weyanes use the opportunity of such division among the opposition to threaten both camps of the freedom fighters. If the revolution should happen, the two camps of the freedom fighters need to be bold enough to take risk of losing their ideals after the revolution and live with a possible compromise solution: the first bloc should be ready to lose for instance Oromia, Ogadenia… and the second camp should be ready to risk Ethiopia. Otherwise, in short, Weyane is really lucky, there will never be any revolution; and getting rid of Weyane through election is of course minimal, that is why armed struggle then will be the only option left. If both the public uprising and the armed struggle are not effective, shouldn’t we then be ready to be ruled by Weyane for the next one century? In short the scare tactics, which the Weyane cadres nowadays do use are:

    - “if revolution happens, Amharas can take over and dismantle Oromia”
    - “if revolution happens, Oromos will be in power and dismember Ethiopia”
    - “if revolution happens, Weyane army is not like Tunisia’s army, but will massacre the civillians and take over power”
    - “if revolution happens, there can be a mayhem against the Tigreans, like that of Ruanda”
    - “if revolution happens, there will be absolute chaos and civil war among different ethnies”

    Are the freedom fighters from both blocs (pro-independence freedom fighters and pro-unity freedom fightrers) ready to tacle this scare tactics of Weyane? Can they agree on the middle ground: freedom and referendum (on self-determination of citizens and nations)? Those freedom fighters, who just sing about the unconditional independence of nations must cool down and accept the public verdict, as well as those freedom fighters who now cry for the unconditional unity also should learn to be moderates and accept the public verdict. That means both camps must agree on first to get freedom from Weyane fascists and racists, and then democratically decide for either Independence or Unity per referendum; i.e. only democratic independence or democratric unity (independence or unity based on public verdict) can be a lasting solution. We like it or not, all peoples in that region are interdependent, be it they decide for political Independence or for political Union. The political will of the peoples in the empire/region is what matters at the end!

    Unfortunately, there are still some blind nationalists in both the Amhara and the Oromo camps, who yet couldn’t see the common convergent short term goal of the two big nations, i.e. the ‘freedom from Weyane’s fascism’. Such blind nationalists concentrate on only their divergent long term goals: independent Oromia (Oromo’s goal) vs united Ethiopia (Amhara’s goal). But the smart nationalists from both the Amhara and the Oromo camps are trying to forge an alliance to achieve together their convergent common short term goal and then to decide on their respective long term goals through public verdict (by referendum). The blind ones are too far from accepting and respecting the will of their respective public as a final verdict. That means, in short, the blind nationalists do preach democracy, which includes the referendum, but they are not yet ready to practice what they do preach. We hope the few smart and genuinely democratic nationalists in both camps, who try to practice what they do preach, will prevail to cooperate and make Weyane’s fascism be history. Here we also can call the blind nationalists as dictatorial nationalists. Those who want to achieve either ‘Independent Oromia’ or ‘United Ethiopia’ per public referendum are democratic Oromo nationalists and Amhara nationalists respectively. The others who just want to achieve their long term goal without a public verdict are purely dictators, who can talk about freedom and democracy, but know nothing what freedom and democracy really mean.

    Those of us, who do have a cognitive ability to imagine something in abstract way, let’s just try to imagine a very big letter ‘Y’ and try to distinguish four points on the letter (the bottom tip, the middle junction, the left top tip, and the right top tip). Then let’s imagine that the bottom tip is the status-quo of Ethiopian politics, where both the Amhara and the Oromo are under the Tyranny of Weyane; the middle junction is a point for Freedom of both nations from the tyranny; the left top tip is the point of Oromian Independence; and the right top tip is the point for Ethiopian Union. Then let’s imagine that this letter ‘Y’ is a route of the liberation journy for both the Amhara and the Oromo from the tyranny, from their present common situation, towards their short term and long term goals. Can we imagine that these two oppressed nations do have a possibility to move from the bottom tip (point of tyranny) to the middle junction (point of freedom) together? This is our common route of the journey towards the common converging short term goal. Then will come the two diverging routes towards the two different and diverging long term goals of the two nations: the left top tip = Oromian Independence (long term goal of Oromo) and right top tip = Ethiopian Union (long term goal of Amhara).

    Now if we could imagine this well, it is not hard to comprehend that we need the Amhara-Oromo alliance (the all-inclusive alliance) to move from the status-quo of tyranny to the point of Freedom, not to move together to the right top tip (together to the Ethiopian Union, the long term goal of the Amhara elites) or together to the left top tip (together to the Oromian Independence, the long term goal of the Oromo people). After achieving our Freedom together, it is upto the Oromo public to decide through referendum which direction to move further: to the left top tip of Oromian Independence or to the right top tip of Ethiopian Union. If the Oromo majority will choose to move to the right top tip, then our long term Kaayyoo (goal) will be similar to that of the Amhara. Otherwise, if the Oromo majority will choose to move to the left top tip, no Amhara can hinder the Oromo nation from achieving this Oromian Independence. I think there are in general three main possible karaa (ways of struggle) leading us to bilisummaa / to freedom / to netsaannet:

    - Armed Struggle, which was the karaa chosen by the OLF and by the other Oromo liberation fronts,
    - Popular Uprising, which is not yet tried in a well coordinated way, but now seems to be the upcoming option, and
    - Electoral Struggle, which was the karaa chosen by the OFC and by the other Oromo democratic federalists, despite the undemocratic nature of Weyane in particular and that of the Abyssinian rulers of the the empire in general.

    From these three karaa, we have seen that both the armed struggle and the electoral struggle were not yet successful. The armed struggle is too slow because of the limited support from the so called international community and the electoral struggle failed due to the undemocratic nature of the empire and that of its brutal rulers. The option of the popular uprising was tried separately by only the Oromo students during the time span of 2000 – 2007 and by the Amhara urbanites after the “election” 2005.

    Because of such un-coordination and un-cooperation between the different nations in the empire, specially due to the polarization of the Amhara and the Oromo, the hitherto fragmented popular uprisings were not successful. But in the future, it seems that there is a hope for a possible alliance of these nations against the Weyane, which can lead to a successful uprising and also be a quicker way leading us to bilisummaa. I think the combination of the above three karaa in an optimaly calculated and planned manner is the best way towards freedom. That is why Weyane cadres nowadays do their best to hinder this revolution from coming and of course “our smart Afaan Oromo speaking/writing Weyane messangers” are trying to do their job among the Oromo, both in the cyber world and in the real Oromo community. May Waaqa/Igzabiher help us all to understand these moves of both the foes and the friends!

  2. Sheger
    | #2


    You are not telling us what you said the Woyane caders are telling people or people to each other but no wonder
    You seem to ran out of other idea or words. What does EPRDF has more to say any ways.

    Are you telling me that people didn’t got kicked out of Oromia? They didn’t creat some kind of gaint Oromia and
    And splitted the country in to two? And the working Languej In Oromia stat is not Oromigna? Well if you are trying to hid
    That fact? I totally understand. But the truth is people are united and are united as Ethiopians to get reed of you hate

    And this article tells it like it is. And that is with out mentioning how many of our people gets dumped in the middle of the red sea trying to scap starvation and brutality and death. And how many suffers all over the middle east off their

    BEKA, BASS……

  3. chamo
    | #3

    why we fight each other when the time comes it is the best way to leave separetly.
    oromia to oromo
    amara to amara
    tigray to tigre etc very simple solution.

  4. Oda Tulu
    | #4

    Compromise is a woyane supporter in sheep’s clothing

  5. Idiot Dictator
    | #5

    The Separtist wanna be dreamer,Compromise, thinks he can outsmart us. You are just fooling yourself savage the woyane. You are trying hard to divide the Ethiopian people. So long dreamer. Keep on trying until your last grey hair falls out. You will never achieve your goal.

  6. Sheger
    | #6

    You know they are doing every thing to divid us. And they have chosen their instruments. 1 is Ameharic. You know Amarigna
    Is not a languej only the so called Ameharas speak, it is our national languej. Most of the Tigirai and Oromos sidamos
    Gomegofas, bales Eritirians, Gonderays Agews gojamy elebabur, kefa, dembydolo, Harer wolayita kembata, shewa and
    All contemporary Ethiopia and so on uses to communicate with one another. So when the Oromos or the tigress say
    We don’t want to speak Ameharic? Besides what ever els they are doing it is a complete dismembering and disillusion
    Of the country. No matter what kind of tribes we come from we need a national languej and we have one and the rest Is? all of us must learn it an less we choos to live indiginiously. The people all over Ethiopia needs to learn Ameharic
    Most of the people speaks it any ways, but not the indigenous people even thou some of them do and some time two
    Three languejs depending on who els lives on the land where they live. But any how, some thing I want to say to Oromos,… We Ameharas are not the only people who speaker amaregna.

    2. Ameharas, …. We Ameharas or the so called Ameharas are not the only one that has been on power. It is all the people. We had to choose one every time because after all not every body can seat one chair at one time and today’s government speaks Ameharic too. And we know who most of them are.

    And so on……


  7. Seyfu
    | #7

    Gash Polisu]
    Thank you very much for exposing the joint Shabia and Melese cadres who are far more represented in our forums more than Ethiopians. E.R is more tolerant to Eritreans in his site than the comments true Ethiopians who want to contend with Shabians.He refused to post my comments in respond to Eritreans views many times before. I always wonder about his mission.Shabia and Weyane hard core politicians are socked to discover the world ,they worked had, impose upon the region is becoming near impossiblity.We need to see in this they have never been enemies but always ,covertly, remain in the same league. Thank you again for exposing Saba, who is meddling in our affiar.Back off you malignant Shabian cadres from our sits.

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