Pentecostalism and Orthodox Christianity: Review of Tibebe Eshete’s Book, The Evangelical Movement in Ethiopia By Messay Kebede

May 24th, 2011 Print Print Email Email

Published by Baylor University Press (2009), the book is a well-researched and abundantly documented account of the inception and spread of evangelical Christianity in Ethiopia. With special emphasis on Pentecostalism, the book goes beyond an eventful account of the evangelical movement; it provides a theoretical explanation for its rapid spread in a country reputed for its long-standing commitment to Orthodox Christianity. It must be said that the book is remarkably up to the challenging task of combining a descriptive account of important events with theoretical insights whose explanatory power is impressive, even for a skeptical reader.

The thorough appreciation of the book requires that the reader be fully cognizant of the various purposes of the book. Tibebe does not indulge in a laudatory discourse on the evangelical movement; nor does he present a disparaging portrait of Ethiopia’s Orthodox Church. Even if we find here and there praises and blames, the book remains a scholarly work intent on providing understanding rather than eulogy. This restraint to an objective account is all the more remarkable, given the personal dimension of the book to the author, who is himself a convert from Orthodox Christianity to evangelical faith.

The first purpose of the book is Tibebe’s intention to correct the dearth of scholarly studies on the evangelical movement in Ethiopia. Misinformation and bias explain the neglect: many Ethiopianists still consider the movement as marginal and foreign-inspired, which is typically summed up by the Amharic term of “mete haymanot.” The label of “imported religion” gave the justification for covert persecution during Haile Selassie’s reign and overt persecution after the establishment of the Derg and socialism. Through its cadres, the Derg used all means, including violence and coercion, to eradicate the movement. The tangible result of this systematic attempt to eradicate was, however, a phenomenal growth of the movement. From one percent of the population in the early 1960s, the movement grew to 6 million in 1994 (some estimates put the number at 12 million). Hence the main question of the book: what explains this remarkable expansion in a country fraught with adverse forces to the faith?

The other important purpose of the book is the removal of the bias against the evangelical faith in Ethiopia, which Tibebe wants to accomplish by forcefully displaying its native character. Without denying the role of foreign missionaries and the international support of evangelical churches, Tibebe argues that the movement has powerful native sources and has always followed one dominant motto, namely, “the Gospel for Ethiopians by Ethiopians.” His argument significantly weakens the “foreign paradigm” through the suggestion that, without the decisive impact of indigenous factors, the phenomenal growth of the movement is utterly incomprehensible.

One cannot but admire Tibebe’s attempt to show the native sources of Pentecostalism. Notably, his view that practices such as healing through prayers, exorcism, display of emotional expression, etc., are just reviving suppressed practices, allows him to speak of Pentecostalism as a renaissance of Ethiopian Christianity. To quote him, “viewed from a historical and analytical perspective, the evangelical faith as embraced by Ethiopians does not signify desertion or denial. Rather, it is an expression of the latent dimension of an already existing faith. Significantly, for those who tuned into the faith from the Orthodox background, Christianity simply took renewed emphasis and meaning” (p. 314). Some such approach definitely goes a long way in dismissing the accusation of foreign religion. Far from being desertion, Pentecostalism, Tibebe insists, is the expected, the longed-for revival of Ethiopian spirituality.

The depiction of the native sources of the movement introduces the third important purpose of the book, namely, the call for acceptance and mutual appreciation. Tibebe asks Ethiopian Evangelists to appreciate and inherit the rich tradition of Ethiopian Orthodox Church and its eminent national character and role both in defending Ethiopia against foreign invasions and in nurturing a home grown Christianity. In return, Orthodox Ethiopians should recognize the native roots of the evangelical movement in Ethiopia and engage in interface activities rather than animosity. Tibebe firmly believes that a change of this nature will be beneficial to both congregations and a significant contribution to the consolidation of democratic spirit in Ethiopia. Witness: the challenge of Pentecostalism has stimulated reformist activities within the Orthodox Church, as shown by the popularity of the revival movement known as “Amanuel Menfesawi Maheber.”

To fulfill these purposes, Tibebe adopts the appropriate method, to wit, the use of historical analysis by which he traces the major events marking the spread of the evangelical movement. The inquiry offers an ample documentation on the growth of the movement since the seventeen century. In particular, it gives a detailed account of the status of the movement during the reign of Haile Selassie and the tumultuous rule of the Derg. We learn that, even though persecutions were by no means absent, the reign of Haile Selassie was “the heyday of missionary activity in Ethiopia” (p. 75). As to the situation under the Derg, the account reveals how the use of systematic repression and brutality only strengthened the resolve of followers, which became a cause for an accelerated expansion of the movement.

To explain the resilience of the movement, Tibebe combines historical research with theoretical explanations. He thus advances the thesis that, in addition to the properly religious need, sociopolitical factors were active in making evangelism, especially in its Pentecostal form, attractive to many Ethiopians. A word of caution: one would totally misrepresent the content of the book if one loses sight of the primacy of the religious factor. Tibebe nowhere reduces the expansion of evangelism in Ethiopia to a political protest against the autocratic rule of Haile Selassie or the brutality of the Derg. Not that sociopolitical conditions were inconsequential; rather, they were only contributing factors to the principal need, which was religious.

The primacy of the religious need fully transpires when Tibebe explains why Pentecostalism seduced so many educated Ethiopians who came from firmly established Orthodox background. For him, the seduction has its roots in the failure of the Orthodox Church to reform itself in accordance with new needs arising from the exposure to Western education and the modern world. Indeed, modernity assumed for Ethiopians the form of an immense challenge to their legacy and became the cause of a deep cultural disorientation and existential anxiety. While many among the educated elite attempted to find answers in the then dominant ideology of Marxism-Leninism, others looked for a renewal of their religious faith, thereby increasingly paying attention to evangelism. In effect, those who went over to evangelism could listen to “qualified speakers on various subjects, like the relationship between science and faith, creation and evolution, or spirituality and rationalism and logic” (p. 138). These were topics that the Orthodox Church was not ready to tackle, as shown by the fact that demands from within the Church to renovate and modernize the faith—the most important being the movement known as Haymanote Abew—repeatedly fell on deaf ears.

Granted the primacy of the spiritual need, the fact remains that the tendency to look for answers to new needs outside the authority of Orthodox Christianity would not have gained momentum without the sociopolitical realities of Ethiopia under Haile Selassie and the Derg. Such is Tibebe’s sophisticated approach. It was already obvious that the success of evangelism in the southern part of the country, notably in Wollega and Wollaita, was a form of protest against the southern Neftegna Gebar system. As Tibebe puts it, “the new faith brought for the believers not only salvation, but also liberation from traditional oppressive structures, healing, and a sense of worth in a sociopolitical milieu that sustained social inequalities” (p.86). Clearly, what particularly hampered the missionary work of the Orthodox Church in the south, besides the use of inappropriate methods, was the close link of the church with the detested Ethiopian state. The lack of independence associated its teachings and missionary efforts with the oppressive structure of the imperial state or the Derg.
This same lack of independence explains why evangelism made such impressive inroads, especially Pentecostalism, in areas traditionally committed to the Orthodox Church. The evidence for this is that the expansion of evangelical movement was essentially an urban phenomenon that involved young educated Ethiopians coming from Orthodox background. To the question why many modern educated Orthodox Christians felt the need to convert to Pentecostalism, in conjunction with the primary reason of being unable to find in the traditional church the answers they needed to the challenges of modernity, one must refer to their inability to reform the faith, owing to its close tie with the Ethiopian state, and their increasing dissatisfaction over the sociopolitical realities of Ethiopia under Haile Selassie and, with greater reason, under the Derg.

While Tibebe does an excellent job in articulating major themes with relevant events and back them with sound arguments, questions pertaining to clarifications as well as to theoretical developments come to mind. Granted that one cannot but praise the attempt to remain as objective as possible, still one cannot avoid the feeling that Tibebe’s understanding of the Orthodox faith remains external in that it is viewed from an alien religious stand considered as normative or superior. He draws the explanation for the conversion of many educated Ethiopians to Pentecostalism from the disabilities of the Orthodox Church, thereby suggesting that evangelism is not only superior, but that it has also effective answers to the challenges of modernity to religious faith. One can reasonably contest the assertion if only because no religious doctrine is immune to the assaults of science, evolutionism, and the debunking of fideism. The commitment to a specific faith is more a matter of choice than doctrinal superiority.

The use of an alien normative stand, otherwise known as Eurocentrism, misses the particularity, the unique nature of the Orthodox faith. The lack of theological sophistication, the use of crude methods of conversion, the alliance with the Ethiopian state, etc., turn into defects only in the eyes of alienated Ethiopians who use Western religiosity as a prototype. To this approach, one can oppose the idea that Ethiopian religiosity should not be judged by the norms of doctrinal refinement and theological sophistication. Instead, one should bring out its cultural nature, which is such that Christianity in Ethiopia is like the air we breathe. In Ethiopia, God is everywhere; His presence is felt not only in churches and holy places, but in any personal or social manifestation. God is not so much conceptualized as felt like the immovable background of everything. Christianity in Ethiopia has never been an issue of doctrinal conversion, but a native attribute that one acquires for being member of a distinct and messianic polity, the very one flowing from the definition of Ethiopia as God’s favored nation. Accordingly, as an extension of divine election, missionary work is perceived as integration into a privileged, restricted polity, less so as a doctrinal allurement.

Doubtless, as Tibebe convincingly argues, when Ethiopians became exposed to Western education, the need for a rationalized faith transpired, which need started to paint the traditional religion in negative terms, that is, as not being as doctrinal and speculative as Western religions. Equally true that the Orthodox Church proved unable or reluctant to satisfy the doctrinal needs of the educated elite. Still, it makes little sense to put the blame on the faith, since it amounts to saying that it should be other than what it became as a result of a protracted and native historical development. The religion had a long history and resisted the powerful assaults of Islam and colonial incursions, not because of its doctrinal power or purity, but because of the powerful sentiments agitated by the sense of divine favoritism as enshrined, for instance, in the popular belief that Ethiopia is the guardian of the Arch of the Covenant.

Tibebe is absolutely right to say that the Orthodox Church failed to address the concerns of modern educated Ethiopians. Unfortunately, as he himself admits, the latter were alienated people and, as such, little able to make sound judgments or choices. A culturally disoriented generation is certainly unfit to provide norms by which Orthodox Christianity should be criticized or to select the religion by which it should be replaced, especially in light of its glorious accomplishments in preserving the independence and identity of a polity in a hostile environment and for such a long time. Since the assumption is that the religious response was healthier than the political radicalism imparted by the adoption of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Tibebe is hereby asked to provide the reasons for the beneficial effects of evangelical spiritualism.

All the more reason for asking the question is that Tibebe does not hesitate to conceptualize the attraction of Ethiopian students to Marxism-Leninism and Pentecostalism in the late 60s and early 70s as different responses to cultural disorientation and political frustration. Even though disagreements and clashes soon irrupted between the two movements—the radical students accusing Pentecostal students of being CIA agents conspiring to politically demobilize the youth by luring it into religious ecstasy—there is no doubt that both movements shared the character of being extreme. The question is then: why extremism, be it in the form of political radicalism or religious fundamentalism? Whether it was a counter-response to the spread of Marxist atheism among the students and educated elite or the expression of frustration over the socialism of the Derg, since religious fundamentalism clings to the faith by intensifying it, the dissonance between the response and the premises of modernity stands out.

To be sure, it is not clear how religious intensification can be construed as a modern response. In particular, rationality goes in the direction of accommodating faith with the scientific spirit, not in the direction of introducing into the faith beliefs and practices that clash with science. What all this means is clear enough: the attempt to rank one religion above the others in the name of modernity is a risky business since in the eyes of science all religions without distinction belong to the sphere of the irrational. Let us admit it, the development of modern ideas and the diffusion of the scientific spirit have turned religious conversions into obsolete practices.

Similarly, while the great value of the book lies in the linkage it establishes between religious conversion and sociopolitical concerns, it is not clear in what sense Pentecostalism can be classified as a protest. For the pioneers of the movement, the conversion must be explained in purely religious terms, that is, as expression of God’s revelation, and not as an outcome of impersonal forces resulting from economic or political hindrances. Tibebe rightly objects that the purely religious account cannot explain why the movement expanded at a particular time and with such a rapid pace. In thus saying that social conditions favored the expansion of evangelism, Tibebe posits the movement as a component part of social protests. Some such assumption goes against the prevailing view describing the movement as apolitical or, according to the radical students of the 60s, as frankly reactionary. People saw the movement as an incitement to withdraw from politics through an all-consuming pursuit of otherworldly goals. In other words, Tibebe has yet to convince us why this type of religious fundamentalism is not a reaction, a flight from the harsh reality of politics, just as he has to show us how it encourages modern and democratic forms of thinking.

One critical issue conspicuously absent from the book is the standing of the evangelical movement in relation to the other important and established religion, namely, Islam. Tibebe exhaustively analyzes the inroads of evangelism in the southern part of Ethiopia where primal religions mostly prevailed and in regions traditionally populated by Orthodox Christians. But he nowhere deals with the legitimate question of the status of evangelism in Muslim-dominated regions. Is evangelism making any progress in these regions as well? If yes, why? If no, why not? Being able to answer these questions certainly helps provide a more general and specified account of the progress of evangelism in Ethiopia.

Lastly, one issue that needs further clarification is Tibebe’s analysis of the attitude of Haile Selassie. He advances the view that Haile Selassie wanted to reform and modernize the Orthodox Church despite its resistance. Yet, he also maintains that he blocked reformist movements within the Church: for instance, the movement of reform initiated by Haymanot Abew failed because it was ultimately controlled by him, which control deprived it of dynamism and autonomy. Was Haile Selassie’s policy an attempt to subdue the Church or a genuine desire to modernize it? A more rigorous analysis of Haile Selassie’s attitude would be helpful to understand the impediments of the traditional religion. Moreover, Tibebe asserts that Haile Selassie was tolerant to the evangelical movement while at the same time viewing the tolerance as a component of his strategy to bolster his international image. Our understanding of the situation would acquire greater clarity if these imperial contradictions, which were real, were conceptualized in specific terms.

To conclude, Tibebe’s book is highly informative and enlightening, in addition to inviting new reflections on issues that most people either misconstrue, ignore, or find baffling. The questions that I have raised in no way diminish the value of the book; on the contrary, they are appeals for Tibebe to further expand his inquiry in the direction of finding some answers. The truth about the book is that it is a must-read for all those who want to understand the changing face of Ethiopia.

  1. Sheger
    | #1

    Sir it is a very good issue to talk about but just don’t make it sound like people are like some kind of a jar where one can pore what ever kind of religion when it wants. I am sure you have your own heart to decide for your self besides some time some body have to teach you about your choices. And some time and most likely we follow our parents religion.

    But any ways wether Pentes or Ortodox followers believe in God and are both Christians. What matters in this whole
    Talk is that who ever it is, that they believe in God and trust in him, and God is not a religious leader, he is our creator
    And he is our God. It doesn’t make us not to believe in God just because
    You went scientific about it. Stop DIVIDING people. Ethiopian people are much closer to each other than we have ever been for many years now. Let’s support unity and there is nothing better than God that can unite us all and protect us all.

  2. Anbabi from Dallas
    | #2

    Excellent review, Ato Mesay. A scholarly book that deals with this subject matter is long overdue. Such writings and a public discourse of the topic, I hope will enlighten people to be open minded and tolerant of other fellow Ethiopians’ faiths.

    The theoretical insight you mentioned above hopefully goes beyond just the explanation of the spreading of the evangelical movement to cover topics – such as “Evangelism in Ethiopia, and the Government”. The evangelicals outlook on public policies, and more specifically – on political matters rightly, or wrongly has been a source of criticism on the movement. I hope the book sheds light over this subject matter not just citing accounts of events by different Ehiopian governments, but also explaining the movement’s philosophy and its teachings vis-a-vis citizenry/government.

    I can’t wait to read it.

  3. Anonymous
    | #3

    Everybody is right to him/herself. There is no need of a reform in EOTC dogmas and principles.

  4. Samson
    | #4

    My favorate Quote of the day
    “Ethiopian religiosity should not be judged by the norms of doctrinal refinement and theological sophistication. Instead, one should bring out its cultural nature, which is such that Christianity in Ethiopia is like the air we breathe. In Ethiopia, God is everywhere; His presence is felt not only in churches and holy places, but in any personal or social manifestation. God is not so much conceptualized as felt like the immovable background of everything. Christianity in Ethiopia has never been an issue of doctrinal conversion, but a native attribute that one acquires for being member of a distinct and messianic polity, the very one flowing from the definition of Ethiopia as God’s favored nation.”
    Messay Kebede.

  5. rezene kadissaba
    | #5

    Sheger – why do you feel Ethiopian unity is so fragile? each time people want to talk about thier special featurs, like language, religion and so on you feel treathened. How many books get printed in where you live related to religion and more. Do they fear their counntry falls appart? NO. Ethiopia is stronger than ever my freind. We are inspiring and being inspired by more African values, beyond Ethiopianism. Learn about EAC – and those regional entities. You are used to listening too much of fake oneness which killed the young and beutiful Ethiopians.

  6. ETHIOPIA JEW
    | #6

    TO SAMSON:

    WHAT GREAT CONTRADICTION YOUR COMMENT/QUATION HAS IS BEYOUND EXPLANATION!! The first sentence “Ethiopian religiosty should not judged by the norms of doctrinial refinement…….” instead by christianity’s unique nature and the likeness of the human breath for survival. How about Islam and Judaism? Are they without culture and history? The only point one must agree with the richness of Christian religious culture is that its existance (as the world dominiant religion) was realized at the expense of other religion, namely Judaism. This is because Christianity was formed by the council of NICEA where Jesus, a semi-deity was declared “God” in 325 A.D by 318 to 2 votes. Even the Christian Holly Book, the BIBLE, has another funny name, “Authorized King James Version”, an English king, not a book “Authorized by God”. So Christianity is a fabricated faith by politicians and the Roman Empire, specially by Constantinine. Nothing can be farther from the truth. All religions are equal and not only christianity which is considered as a “breath” for salvation (or survival). If you want to read more how Judaism and Christianity differ, see my article at the following link:

    http://www.abugidainfo.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/on_religious.pdf

    or http://www.abugidainfo.com/?p=11868 and read the same starting comment no 16.

  7. Sheger
    | #7

    Rezene kadisaba, I just meant to say Aba poulos are busy doing some thing els.

    Ethiopian JEW. You people really need to read the songs of David so you know who our lord Jesus Christ is. And also
    The book of Isaya. And also a bit of the old testament. Do you remember what God said to the Phero through Moses
    About Israel? He called Israel ” his offspring” or first born. And so was Jesus our lord son of God and the Mesaya, the deliveror, lord of peace, God with in, God with us, ( Amanuel ).

    May his name be blessed for ever….Amen.

  8. Tolagna
    | #8

    You will have to see and imagine;therefore,feel it as what is like a cactus is.Cactus has neele like protruding spikes spreading out on its flat body and is dangerious;so pentecostalism is like a deadly needle,as a cactus has lethal needles on its surface so ,if you are in contact with a cactus;when it touches you,even a slight touch will have a penetrating effect so that it will goes into your soul and causes you a prolonged pain.

    Ethiopian Muslims successfuly defended their country through a strong belief in Islam and have been preserving culture and tradation by fighting tooth and nail against the deadly protestantism and its sharpnai,pentecostalism.Pentecostals and evangelists will never defeat muslims and destroy Islam.

    Coming to the defend of Muslims and Islam in Ethiopia against the destroyers,Evangelists and Pentes is a sure gurantee in preserving priceless tradation,belief,and culture of Ethiopia.In not doing so,all we have to know now,before it is late that our country will definitely disintegrate.

  9. Anonymous
    | #9

    TOLAGNA THIS IS ETHIOPIA THE MOST PEACE LOVING PEOPLE IN THE UNIVERSE WE ARE THE FIRST COUNTRY WE TREAT YOUR PROPHETS . THE FREEDOM YOU ENJOYING NOW .THE PENTECOSTALS HAVE RIGHT TO EXIST AS YOU . THEY ARE NOT TERRERIST BUT PEACE LOVING .ASK THEM TO PRAY FOR YOU !

  10. Show me the money
    | #10

    Everyone of us should ask ourselves if everything we do in everyday basis is right in the eyes of God. Unless we all follow the golder rule that is: “Do unto others what you would have them do unto you, this sums up the Law and the Prophets.” Memorizing every Bible verse and changing religion from one denomination to another is not a free ticket to Heaven. These days, unfortunately, most evangelical pastors have made their churches a money making business and live extravagantly beyond ones wild imaginations how a servant of God suppose to live his/her life. My religion, tradition and culture go hand in hand that makes me who I am–please leave my EOC alone and stop belittling my religion and my Church. I’ve met some of you who consider yourselves as “born again Christians” and you are just as bad and as good as the next person that was only born once.

  11. Samson
    | #11

    Dear Jew, please be aware of the fact that, there is a big different between being an Ethiopian Citizen or an Ethiopian. I hope you understand what i mean.

  12. Ivanhoe Bell
    | #12

    First, I respect my Ethiopian Christianity and no other Missionaries can convince me of my Love for Ethiopia I only read Books of His Imperial Majesty about the Holy Bible in Amharic to English which the Old and Young understand and spoke. No versions only ORIGINAL.

  13. tewbel
    | #13

    Why did you censor my message ? It was not radical or Earth shaking
    in fact it was good Christian message.

  14. DRAMA
    | #14

    JESUS CHRIST WAS AN ETHIOPIAN AND I DON’T THINK BRINGING WHITE MAN AND HIS RELIGIOUS TEACHING INTO ETHIOPIA IN NECCESSARY. WE GAVE THEM THE RELIGION AND NOW THEY GIVE IT BACK TO US?????????????? IT DOES NOT MAKE SENSE.
    INSTEAD THEY SHOULD BE BRINGING TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION TO ETHIOPIA. MAYBE THEIR MONEY TOO IF THEY ARE REALLY CONCERNED. THEY HAVE CHOSEN THIS PATH AND WE ALL KNOW WHY? SOME ARE ORTHODOX, SOME ARE EVANGEL CHRISTIANS, PENTE FANATICS, MOSLEM FANATICS ETC … SO WHAT YOU 3RD WORLD LOW LIVES????????? WHERE IS THE DEMOCRACY… WHERE IS THE MONEY?????

  15. Waqqoo
    | #15

    Nevertheless the writer to manufacture the roots of Pentecost in Ethiopia, the truth is a failed one world religion in Japan speaks another story. In Meiji Era the West were sending their missionaries with bible to convert dominantly Budhist Japanese. Then they managed to convert some but the Meiji regime reacted that Japan is not ready to be culturaly colonized and authomaticaly outlawd foreign religion. Further more persecuted those few converted. Meiji’s reasoning was a disturbing the ecosystem of Japanese way of life will breed confusion, mistrust, animosity and division. A divided Japan can’t make any progress.
    They shut up foreign culture and empower domestic thinking, creativity and self consciousness. Japan raises agains the odds and become one of the major player in world affairs.
    Therfore, I will not buy what the writer or what the reviewer claimed to be true. There is huge deficit of religious supply (Budhist) in Japan Nevertheles Christianity failed to take roots with enormous investments. The most legitmate explanation is “Japanese are confident in themselves”.
    The dimension of deficit in Ethiopia is not limited to religion, but also in politics, business, scholarship, consensus building, the list is long. Now that deficit of selfworth is exploited by other actors. Weavering is not healthy and will not be solved by a new religious patch. The more Ethiopians distanced from their natural cultural fabric the great they are in bottomless trouble. No one can convert a Japanese (mostly they are non religious) as much one can an Orthodox Ethiopian into Pentecost. That is a whole lot of shame for us.

  16. Tell
    | #16

    Protestantism has tried for many years to destroy catholicism from Western World. Which resulted the growing of unti-Christ religions and people doesn’t care anymore about their faith/region. That is the product of protestantism.

  17. Anonymous
    | #17

    THE VIEW OF ABOUT PENTECOSTAL GIVEN HERE IT DOESN’T MAKE SENSE . WHY IS BAD? DOES IT ENCOURAGE SOCIAL INEQUALITIES, PROSTITUTION ,CORRUPTION ,I DON’T SEE ANY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORTHODOX AND PENTECOSTAL. BOTH CHURCHES ARE THE HEAD IS CHRIST .I THINK THE BEST THING BEFORE WE COMMENT WE HAVE TO HAVE READ SOME REFERENCES OTHERWISE WE JUST REFLECTING OUR OWN IGNORANCE FAITH IS NOT A CULTURE IT IS PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR CREATOR .

  18. kaitama
    | #18

    Protestants from Germany intruded into the religious life of the king of England and dismantled his marriage life that he had committed to his wife,and compleely destroyed chatholisism along with the nation’s wealth.Since then,the convertees,British protestants ventured out to Africa,a bilble,their own manufactured bible in one hand and a knife on another hand and destroyed the lives of Africans.

  19. GONDEREW
    | #19

    TO SAMSON:-

    NO ONE UNDERSTAND YOUR QUESTION AND THEREFORE, NO NEED TO RESPOND TO YOU ANY ANSWER AS SUCH. NEVERTHLESS, JUDAISM AND JEWS PREDATED CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM EVEN THOUGH CHRISTIAN FALSELY CLAIMED THAT “ETHIOPIA IS A CHRISTIAN ISLAND”. WAS QUEES OF SHEBA (IN 950 BC) A CHRISTIAN? AND CAN YOU PROVE TO ME WHETHER THERE WAS A SINGLE PERSON AS MUSLIM OR CHRISTIAN BELIVER BEFORE THE COMING OF JESUS CHRIST? YOU KNOW THE ANSWER BUT AS A CHRISTIAN YOU ARE UNFORTUNATE TO ADMIT FACTS. THAT IS WHAT CHRISTIAN MEANT.

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