Book Review: “Assab YeManat: Ye-Ethiopia Ye-Bahr Ber Tiyake,” in Amharic by Abebe Haile

September 1st, 2011 Print Print Email Email

Book Review: “Assab YeManat: Ye-Ethiopia Ye-Bahr Ber Tiyake,” in Amharic. Author: Dr. Yacob Haile-Mariam, Fundscraft Publishing 2011, pp. 245. Reviewed

There have been a continuous flow of articles, commentaries, symposiums, and book chapters on the question of Ethiopia’s right for access to the sea, particularly since the secession of Eritrea in 1993 and the Ethio-Eritrea border war of 1998-2000. However, this is the first book I am aware of that is entirely devoted to the topic. Probably it is the one book that provides irrefutable answers to most of the nagging questions about access to the sea, the so-called Algiers agreement and its aftermath that Ethiopians and their friends have been asking for nearly two decades.

There is no question that the Algiers Agreement that accepted as valid the defunct Italian colonial treaties played a crucial role in deciding the fate of Ethiopia’s access to the sea. And many of us can recall the outcry in Ethiopia, and among Ethiopians throughout the world, during and following the Algiers negotiations. Ethiopians across the world expressed their outrage with protest marches, Internet blogging, diplomatic lobbying; and appeals to the UN, the Ethiopian prime minister, the Ethiopian parliament, international leaders, and anyone who would listen. Of course, all of this public appeal came to naught because the Ethiopian government had already made its decision to give up the entire Red Sea Coast and other territories to Eritrea. This is why the fundamental rights of the citizens of these territories and the question of access to the sea, particularly access to Assab, still remain a burning issue for Ethiopians today.

Many Ethiopians, especially those engaged in business and investment, realize the seriousness of Ethiopia’s landlocked status. According to “Assab YeManat: Ye-Ethiopia YeBahr Ber Tiyake,” it is hard to imagine that Ethiopia is the only major country in the entire world that is so close to the sea, only about 60 kilometers, yet has no access to it. Consequently, ever since the loss of Assab, Ethiopia has fallen at the mercy of tiny Djibouti and has been scrambling for additional outlets through Sudan, Somalia and Kenya, all at great costs to the nation. Quoting a wealth of expert data and using facts and figures the book analyzes the detrimental impact of the loss of access to the sea on the economic, political, diplomatic and security well-being of the country.

I wish the author included more background coverage on the history of the Medri Bahri province and the role the great Ethiopian patriot and hero, Alula Aba Nega, played in defense of Ethiopia’s northern borders. Lest we forget, Ras Alula was a fierce defender of his country’s borders, the founder of Asmara, and the last Bahr Negash until Italian colonialists sneaked in and took over the province in 1890 when he and Emperor Yohannes were away battling the Dervish invaders at Metema. Nevertheless, reading this book it is clear that the author is no stranger to the historical and legal issues involved. Not only has he written and spoken about Ethiopia’s right for access to the sea and the citizenship rights of the people of the Afar Coast over the years but also he draws upon a considerable body of United Nations resolutions, Ethiopian history, and his own international legal experience to write the book.

Thus the author rightly questions the Ethiopian provisional government’s legal standing for rushing to recognize the Eritrean secession and later for accepting the defunct Italian colonial treaties as a basis for settling border disputes. A casualty of the border demarcation commission, he explores the legitimate rights of the citizens of the Afar Red Sea Coast, Badme, Adi Erob, etc… vis-à-vis the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The book also scans Ethiopia’s historic quest for the return of her province of “Eritrea,” critiques the legal ground for the Algiers Agreement, shows the under-handed role the mediators in Algiers played, identifies the composition of the Border Demarcation Commission and argues its illegitimacy, and most importantly details the role the multi-million dollar but weak Ethiopian legal team played at The Hague. Where did the historic Ethiopian borders begin on the Red Sea Coast – from the sea shore or from the islands on the Red Sea? Where did the Italian map makers, in the so-called colonial treaties, place Fort Cardona and Tsorona? Why were the judges perplexed by the responses of the Ethiopian legal team? These are just a few examples from the book where the legal team again and again couldn’t shoot straight. Anyone who read the legal and political competence of the incomparable Aklilu Habte Wold who single-handedly checkmated an army of Italian, Latin and Arab lawyers and diplomats at the UN negotiations in Zewde Reta’s book “Ye-Eritrea Gudai” would understand why Ethiopia this time came limping out of the Algiers and later The Hague negotiations. What is more the author rejects the legal ground on which the Border Demarcation Commission is established and therefore argues that Ethiopia has the right to reject it along with its anti-Ethiopia rulings.

The book quotes public pronouncements across a wide spectrum of the Ethiopian society including youngsters, students, political leaders, journalists, scholars and foreign experts on the subject of Ethiopia’s landlocked status. Commenting on the Algiers agreement and the 1998-2000 border war with Eritrea, the well-known British historian and scholar Christopher Clapham is quoted as saying, “Ethiopia pulled defeat from the jaws of victory.”

Dr.Yacob Haile-Mariam is probably one of the few Ethiopians who can provide a competent historical, legal and political analysis of why Ethiopia became landlocked and what may be done to resolve the stalemate. Fortunately, he doesn’t leave the matter hanging in stalemate, but gives alternative suggestions for Ethiopia and Eritrea to accommodate each other by coming up with a win-win solution.

Apparently, Dr. Yacob considers Ethiopians and Eritreans as kin and therefore are bound together by history, language, culture and geography. This may be a wishful thinking especially as long as Isaias Afewerki and Meles Zenawi are in power. However, one can’t unequivocally say that the two parties would never come together again.

If history is any guide, unity invariably trumps division. East and West Germany, North and South Vietnam were separated by outside interference but finally came together. Others that made it include China and Hong Kong, North and South Yemen, and one may even contemplate where the European Union, or the African Union for that matter, are headed to. For one reason or another it seems that the world is increasingly coming together than going apart. Can we say the same for Ethiopia and Eritrea? The answer is anyone’s guess.

“Assab YeManat: YeEthiopia YeBahr Ber Tiyake” is an excellent history document. What is more it is a book about a critical time and circumstance in our history that not only students of history but everyday Ethiopians will appreciate. Enjoy the reading!

  1. ወይዘሪት እንትና
    | #1

    ውድ አቡጊዳዎች እግዚሃብሄር ይስጥልን ስላስነበባችሁን::

    ዶ/ር ያዕቆብ ታላቅ ቁምነገር ስላቀረቡልን ምስጋናችን እጥፍ ድርብ ነው:: የመጽሓፉን ይዘት ገምግመው እንድናነበው ላበረታቱን ለውድ አቶ አበበ ሀይሌም ምስጋናችን ይድረሳቸው ግን ቅሬታችንን ባንነግራቸው አህምሮዓችን ይወቅስናል:: መጽሃፉን የሚያነበው ሰው ብሔራዊ ቕንቕችንን ማንበብ የሚችለው ህዝባችን አይደለም እንዴ?

    ታዲያ ዶ/ር ያፅቆብ የጻፉት በራሳችን ብሔራዊ ቕንቕ ሆኖ ሳለ ለምንድነው ታዲያ ሁለቱንም ማንበብ ለምንችለው ብቻ መጽሃፉ በእንግሊዝኛ የተገመገመው? ለወደፊት ገምጋሚዎቻችን ከዚህ ይማራሉ በሚል ጥያቄያችንን አብዛኛውን አንባቢ በመወከል ስናቀርብ ይህንን ዕድል ለሰጡን ለአቡጊዳ ድህረ ገፅ አዘጋጆች ምስጋናችን ከፍ ያለ ነው::

    ባለቤቱ የናቀውን ማን ያከብረዋል ይባል አይደል

  2. Patriotic Eritrean
    | #2

    Day Dreamers

    | #3


  4. Yemane Kiros
    | #4

    All Ethiopians should know by now that the fascist and racist Meles Zenawi is responsible for landlocking Ethiopia. I have repeatedly heard Meles Zenawi arguing that question of port or access to the sea is an Amhara demand meant to damage the integrity and sovereignty of Eritrea. He calls even those few Tigrayans who raise the issue of port as small Amharas and asks them whether they have befriended any Amhara to get this idea. Meles Zenawi has always dismissed the question of port as an Amhara consipiracy and defended the interests of Eritrea. Ethiopia`s right to port and access to the sea is not an Amhara demand as Meles Zenawi and his followers argue, but it is the rightful demand of all Ethiopians. Meles Zenawis blind and deep seated hatred to a group of Ethiopians he calls Amharas is also harming the Tigrayans. He is using the people of Tigray as instruments to destroy Ethiopia.This issue can only be addressed and resolved by removing the ethnical-fascist and anti_ethiopia regime of Meles Zenawi.

  5. Omg
    | #5

    Which Eritrea is he talking about?!?!

  6. Bohashem
    | #6

    Come out from your chauvinist myth and “Afe-Tarik” and think how all the peoples of Eritrea and Ethiopia and the rest of the Horn of Africa region can live and coexist in peace and development. Useless chauvinism and expansionist tendencies have already costed the peoples of Ethiopia and the sub-region a great deal. It is through mutual recognition of rights and common interests that economic and other needs can be promoted and sustained, and not through fabricated claims of history and land/sea rights. You should accept the reality as a starter i.e. knowing that Eritrean independence and territorial integrity is irreversible! Then move on to work on how to make the relationship between the two sisterly countries more of a partnership based on mutual economic development interests, peace etc. There you will find many Eritreans and Ethiopians joining hands with you for common goals.

  7. Zerayakob Yared
    | #7

    በአፈ-ታሪክ ብቻ ሳይሆን ሰነዶች በሚያረጋግጡት የታላቅዋ ኢትዮጵያ ታሪካችን መሰረት አዱሊስ የአክሱም-ኢትዮጵያ ወደብ ነው!!!

    መተቃቀፉን በሚመለከት ጉዳይ ደግሞ ዘለቄታ ይኖረው ዘንዳና “የኢትዮጵያ ጤፍ ኤድስ ስለሚያስይዝ አንፈልገውም, ስለሆነም የሱዳን ማሽላ ነው የምንበላው” ከሚሉት አይነት የቅሌት ውሽለካዎች ዘንዳ ተመልሰን እንዳንዘፈቅ ይከላከልልን ዘንዳ ካሁን በፊት ለደረሰው “ቤትዋን አቃጥላ ገና አሁን ሞቀኝ” አለች አይነቶች የእብድነት ነገሮች ሁሉ እንድንገላገል እንዲጠቅመን ከልብ የመነጩ ፀ ፀ ቶ ች ከመጡ በኋላ ቢሆን ይመረጣል::

    አለበለዚያ ግን 1 ናቅፋ ይዞ 10000000 ብር($) ከያዘ ሰውየ ጋራ አብሮ ለመደራደር እንደ መምሎጭለጭ ይቆጠራል!

    የመምሎጭለጩን ጉዳይን በሚመለከት ደግሞ አንድም ቀዳማዊ ኅይለስላሴ ጠቅላላ የባህር ጠረፉን አስመልክተውና ሁለትም የአሁኑ የኢትዮጵያ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስተርም አሰብን አስመልክቶ ለሰጥዋቸው አባባሎች የሚጨመርባቸውም ሆነ የሚቀነስባቸው ነጥብ ስለሌለው በዚሁ እንዳል ይቆያል:: እናንተም በየአገኛችሁት የግፈኞች ቤቶች ዘንዳ እየተሽሎከሎካችሁ የኢትዮጵያን ስም ማጉደፉን ቀጥሉ!

  8. Kiros Girmay
    | #8

    To Bohashem,

    To tell you frankly you are blindly following, Meles or Issayas. Ethiopian History is NOT “afe-tarik” if it is then why your mafia boss Meles celebrated the Millennium? The first few 15 years Meles claimed that Ethiopia is 100 years old the rest is “afe-Tarik New”. If that is his argument who’s millennium was he dancing suddenness dance during the millennium celebration? Can you tell us if Dinknesh/Lucy is afe-tarik? When you dawn play Ethiopian history you are dawn plying your history (whether you are Ethiopian or “Eritrean”).

  9. Eritrea 4 Eritreans
    | #9

    To say the least, The book is not worth the paper and ink it is written with.

  10. yebbo
    | #10

    Ethiopian economic and geopolitical interest was sold out when the shabia and the woyane and egypt (through Butros butros ghali) made a back room deal to deprive ethiopia of its legitimate access to the sea. IT IS THE CRIME OF THE 20TH CENTURY.

    Even Jimmy Carter, the former US president who helped the woyane and shabia to seize power has said that ethiopia should have her acess to the sea. there is no doubt that ethiopia has support on this issue from the international community if a government is set up in ethiopia that stands for ethiopian interest.

    It is not fair, it is not just. Where there is no fairness and lack of justice there will always be the demand for fairness and justice. if the shabia are sensible there is a way to settle this issue satisfactorily with out further blood shed. Otherwise the inevitable is awaiting.

    Afeworki is busy destabilising the region by supporting secessionist groups in ethiopia hoping that he will be safe if ethiopia is destabilised. he still has the ambition to take part in the looting of ethiopia by using his surrogate ogranisations which he hopes will some day take power in ethiopia. But this is a delusion.

    sooner or later we have to face the reality both in ethiopia and eritra, and sensible people in eritra and ethiopia should work to bring a soluion that benefits the brotherly people of eritra and ethiopia.

    God bless ethiopia/eritra

  11. Aman
    | #11

    It is perplexing to see the so called the “elite, doctors, historians etc” always try to seed words of hatred, instead of words of peace, to fulfil their blood loving senses. They long for hearing the news of war, massacre and disasters, as if it were the word of God; they dream to see the shedding of innocent people, as if it were a pure spring water; they want touch the destruction of infrastructure and social fabric, as if it were building them; they want to smell the odour of decaying bodies of innocent people who would be lost due to fierce fighting, as if it were aroma of beautiful flowers. The reason is simple. Because: 1) they are seeds of evil; 2) they will not be the ones who will die and nor their children, but the poor and the helpless and their children; 3) the list goes on.
    Eritrea and Ethiopia have been two different countries, even during the biblical times. Trying to distort history and reality on he ground for seeding hatred will be defeated and the two sisterly nations will live in peace and harmony respecting the differences and maintaining the similarities. Finally, using this opportunity, I call upon the writer of this article and the author of the book, and of course for those who are in the same school of thought to sharpen their pens towards mutual respect and co-existence.

  12. Bilal Jemal
    | #12

    The TPLF guys use chauvinism and Amhara interchangeably. So the chauvinists Bohashem refers to are the Amharas. But the author of the book Dr.Yacob Woldemariam is not an Amhara or chauvinist.

  13. Enanu Agonafer
    | #13

    You guys do not know what TPLF – EPRDF want to do with “yebaher ber”. Tigray needs “yebaher ber” as much as Amharas and others do. The issue of “yebaher ber” is an even greater organic glue that can keep the country together, apparently more than federalism can. If the country re-acquires its inadvertently lost coastline, Oromia and Ogadenia will surely stick around than separate. TPLF- EPRDF seem to have got that and they are working towards making the damage good. They should be encouraged.

    See a copy of wikileaks at under the title WIKILEAKS: ETHIOPIA EYES ACCESS TO SEA, TERRITORY SWAPS WITH ERITREA.

  14. Sheger
    | #14

    Yegna, yegna yegna yegna yegna yegna, Nate to a point of yegna nachewu.

  15. Sheger
    | #15

    Yegna yegna yehulachin nate.

  16. Zerayakob Yared
    | #16

    አሁንም እንደገና አባባሌን ለመድገም ያህል: ነገ የትላንትናውን ስህተት እንዳንደግም ዋስትናችን ዛሬ ላይ ሆነን ትላንትናን ማስታወስ ብቻ ነው::

    ከፍ ብሎ በሚታዩት መልእክቶች ኣንዳንዶቻችሁ የሰላም ሃዋርያ መስሎ ለመምሎጭሎጭ እየሞከራችሁ ነው::

    ግን እናንተው አስመሳይ የሰላም ሃዋርያት, ትላንትና ገና ጉድግዋድ ውስጥ ተቀብራችሁ እያላችሁ, ጦርነቱን አሸንፈናል ብላችሁ ለፈረንጅ ጋዜጦኞች “ምሽጋችሁን” በምታሳዩበት ስዓታት, ወደ አውሮፓ ደግሞ ቭድዮአችሁን አምጥታችሁ እንደ ኦፈንባኸር-ካናል በሚባሉት የመንደር የጀርመን የቴሌቭዥን መስመር አይነቶች ዘንዳ, በኢትዮጵያዊ የወደቀ ረሳ ላይ እግራችሁን ተደግፋችሁ የኤልቭስን ጊታር በመምታት ትንጠራሩ አልነበረም እንዴ?

    ዛሬ ግን እነዚያ ለትእይንት መጥተው የነበሩት ጋዜጤኞች ጉዳችሁን ሁሉ ደርሰውበት ሲያበቁ, “አቅማቸውን አያውቁም” የሚለውን ቅፅል ከለደፍባችሁ በኋላ “የሰላም ሃወርያ” ለመምሰል እየተምሎጨለጫችሁ ነው::

    ይሄ መምሎጭለጭ ግን ነገሮች እንደድሮው ተመልሰው እንዳይደገሙ ምንም ዋስትና አይሆንም::

    Once more,ዋስትናው ፀፀት የተሞላበት ይቅርታን መጠየቅ ብቻ ነው:: ስለሆነም አለም በሙሉ እያነበበው, እየሰማውና እያየው “ኢትዮጵያ ሆይ, ትላንትና ላደረግነው ድንብር መንቀዥቀዥና መካለብ ይቅር በይን, ሁለተኛም አንደግምም” ብሎ ቃል መግባትን ያስፈልጋል::

    አለበለዚያ ግን ውሃ ቢረግጡት እምቦጭ ነውና! ያው እንግዲህ ………

  17. kentu
    | #17

    i am the only person want eritrea united with ethiopia but we have one big obstacle meles and isayas base on the issuae eritreans love ethiopia than any body inside ethiopia.for this there is so many reasones 1-dust boys , like usa invaded vetinam there is a lot of kids mix that is why the call them dust boys this start with kink yohanes 1891 2- 1960-1991 dust boys from amhara, oromo etc 3- while eplf fought with derg there is a lot of woman workinh as a cook in derg militatay most of them from tigray and wello and they have kids age 3-8 years old dust boys now pilotes of eri air force [kiyahti embaba]they raise them as eritrean but at the end true relieved so they have ethiopia sentiment 4 most of the leadership they bornd and raise in ethiopia (eplf)they have ethiopian sentiment 5 -when war broke 1998 with weyane 70000 deported from ethiopia these are dust boys 6- when eplf fought derg they have a shortage human so the prisoners of war become eplf fighters 6- when derg was very ewak at the end of the war a lot of derg cadre join eplf not volentarly but to save thier life ethiopian sentiment 8 a lot of woman who work as a cook for military they send them to serve the wounded eplf fighters so they make love and kids another dust boys 9-1945 when british adminitation eritrea there is a lot of party so called low land and high land the highland support by ethiopia becouse they are christians and they have ethiopia sentiment that is why a lot of people deserted to ethiopia that is why theopposition of eritrea they make thier base addis.that is why weyane obcess with eritrea ports. to conclud while i was in ethiopia and eritrea the chance to prograce is the hand of eritrea but ethiopia is on the age of breakdown becouse not poor land but poor leadership base in language they call it the biging of the end. the big of obstacle in eritrea is as i mention the is a big ethiopia sentiment

  18. kentu
    | #18

    i am a devorce man from my wife but while i vist my kids we make love after 2 days we fight again we have big problem so i told her what is our problem she told me we fought so many times, spend a lot of money to court and lawyer still we dont have a peace then a friend of mine told me your problem is the same like ethiopia and eritrea

  19. kentu
    | #19

    i am ethioiean origin come 1935 with italians to plant a coffee in eritreawhen i was 19 so i find my wife from tiray and a have 5 kids.when eritrea unied with ethiopia i was working day time in agricalture night time undercover ethioan inteligeane so i got a lot of aportunity and bacame the richest person in eritrea until eplf comes then they put me jail and at that time the eplf they dont have evough money andi gave them money and i am one of trust of eritrea and they gave me a paper state that mr kentu was one of the best undercover of eplf for the last 20 years now come back my disease and start to intimidat the real eritreans by showing them i was unercover in eritrea. specialy now i coudnt hide any more becouse i am srounded by real ethiopias i am realy very close to expose my self as a hero of ethiopia you see how money works

  20. Abel
    | #20

    The past is of no use but we can learn from the past. Worry about now and the future. The biggest problem of Ethiopia is not port or access to the sea. It is population explosion, mismanagement, famine, inflation, spending, borrowing, materialization and woyane. Once woyane is gone we have to work on the other problems first.

  21. Zerayakob Yared
    | #21

    “The past is of no use but we can learn from the past.”

    አባባሉ ጥሩ ነው:: ግን ትምህርቱ እንዴት ይቀሰም የሚለውን ጥያቄ ያስከተልን እንደሆነ, በየቀኑ ትላንትና የደረሰውን ክፉ ተግባር ባለመርሳት ብቻ ነው መልሳችን ሊሆን የሚችለው!!

    ይሄንን በስነ ስርአቱ ካለመገንዘብ የተነሳ ነው እየተደጋገመ አሾክሻኩዎች ከንጉስ ኤማኑኤል/ሙሶሎኒ እስከ ሳዳም/ጋዳፊ ድረስ ምድሪቱ ያመጣቻቸው የአለም ግፈኞች በሙሉ ዘንዳ እየተሽሎከሎኩ በማሾክሾክ ኢትዮጵያንና ኢትዮጵያውያንን ለማስጠቃት “ተሳክቶላቸው” የሚገኙት ያሉት!!(ምንም እንኩዋን አሾክሻኪዎቹ ከዚህ ተግባራቸው ለራሳቸው አንዳችም ጥቅም ባያገኙበት)

    ስለሆነም, በአሁኑ ጊዜ, አራት ኪሎ ውስጥ ከተሰገሰጉት ራቢጣዎች ጀምሮ በጠቅላላው አለም ላይ ለተበተኑት ባንዳ የአክስቶቻቸው ልጆች ሁሉ ላለፈው ተግባራቶቻቸው ፀፀት እንዲያሳዩና ለመጪውም ጊዜ ቢሆን ትላንትናን እንዳይረሱ በማሳሰብ መተባበር ያለብን::

  22. Anonymous
    | #22

    @Eritrea 4 Eritreans
    To me not only ASSAB is ethiopias but also Erteria. Personally I do not want Erteria, but will die to retuen Assab.

  23. aha!
    | #23

    This is one of the few articles that contributes to the cuases for humanitarian, economic and political crises in Ethiopia since 1991: 1) ethnicfederalism and secessionuism with underlying totaliarianism of the Derg regime, 3) the secession and independence of Eritrea along with the ports, leaving Ethiopia land locked and leaving it at the mercey of Jibouti, 4) the sovereignity of Ethiopia 5) the lack of independent branches of the government, and 6) the creation of ethnic states/killil, instead of retaining the origial provinces as a prelude to ethnic secessionist right to secede upto self determination, the consequence of which if they succeed like the Eritrean province did to engage in a border conflict, 7) to create a eprdf 2 as Yared put, which I designate as EPLF/Ginbot 7/OLF, ONLF as an alliance rather than a merger with same goals for unity, territorial integrity of Ethiopia and Ethiopians.
    and 8) the question of Assab port as Ethiopia’s oultet to the sea for import, export and maritime defense of the country as a political and economic strength of Ethiopia. Of what economic and political significance is a second port to Eritrea anyway?

  24. aha!
    | #24

    Addendum: Please add as #9 as the item: the border dispute with Eritrea and the agreement on the demarcation of the border, as prelude to border disputes btween Ogadenia and Oromia, as well as the so called Amhara region, with ethnicfereralisist intention but with no secessionist stance may have a border conflict with Oromia, once it secedes from Ethiopia.

  25. aha!
    | #25

    And so I say to the Ethiopians in the Diaspora that immirated Ethiopia for political and other reasons to consider yourselves as accountable to Ethiopian tax payers not to ethnic-based parties/fronts to focus on restoring Ethiopian Nationalism and Ethiopian National Interests the sovereignity of Ethiopia and Ethiopians, by reviving your your political outlook in Ethiopiawinet first your ethnicity second to engage in an uprising for freedom with the above points in mind as the major issues of contentions with TPLF/eprdf regime, receiving implict and explict support from those parties and/or fronts with ethnic agenda.

  26. aha!
    | #26

    Addendum: Please item #10 on the issues of seceding a strip of land along the Sudan border of Ethiopia to the Sudan Government, and making land and capital available to TPLF and TPLF affiliated enterprises and land to foreign corporations as means of production to exploit and have a political and economic strangle hold of the countries resources and its people, who do not have access to land in terms of private ownership and capital as well as lack of freedom of communication and government monopoly of communication services, curtailing freedom, capitalism and democracy to take a foothold in Ethiopia.

  27. anon
    | #27

    You put it very well brother.

    Personally am concerned about discussing these issues at the moment. I tend to think; at the present our concern ought to be the removal of weyane.If you think about it as long as weyane is in power, debating this issues will is center productive.

  28. aha!
    | #28

    What Yebo is talking about what should have happened before the creation of the Charter of ethnic federalism and secessionism, with totaliarinim in tact written into the constitution, which initiated secessionist right to the Eritrean Province and ethnic rights under ethnic federalism and secessionist rights to ethnic secessionists. That with the granting of secession upto self-determination, that the Carter administration was perhaps was in favor of Ethiopia should have access to sea ports as part of the bargainig chip to granting secession of the Eritrean Province, without due regard to the constitutional framework of the constitution of ethnic and seccessionist politics under ethnic federalism and secessionism with underlying totaliarinism that became sticking points, impeding individual freedom and liberty, capitalism and democracy to take a foothold for the silent majority of Ethiopia, not that the TPLF has negotiated an access to sea with EPLF.

    The ports and the Eritrean Province will come along, when the silent majority on each side refuse to be goverened under a Dictatorship on the one side and autocratic rule, ethnocratic rule (majority or minority rule)/ethnic dictatorship with ethnic federalism and secessionism with underlying totaliarinism on the Ethiopian side of the equation. It is matter of the silent majority on both sides marching for freedom and liberty to establish and new constitution and democratic government that rules by the consent of the goverened in both cases. When the Eritrean Province forms a fedrated state with the other 14 Provinces, the border dispute and the question of the ports will go away. If it wishes to remain by itself, the access to the sea will be negotiated through United Nations, I presume, leaving the border demarcation between the two democratic countries to be negotiated.

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