What Ethiopia Is Up Against Messay Kebede

September 18th, 2012 Print Print Email Email

A friend recently sent me a video presenting Sebhat Nega’s defense of the TPLF constitution. My friend was rightly amazed at the dismissive and arrogant nature of the defense. My reaction wandered a bit in the direction of assessing the origin of the defense: I could not help but ask what torturous path led a Tigrean to a defense erasing the shared legacy of a very long history. Let me first briefly summarize the content of Sebhat’s discourse.

Sebhat refers to a hypothetical situation where opponents intent on dismissing the TPLF constitution succeed in seizing power. Sebhat emphatically predicts the inevitable disintegration of Ethiopia and the outbreak of war. According to him, the TPLF constitution is the foundation of Ethiopian unity. It originated from a consensus of all the peoples of Ethiopia and remains the sole guarantee of equality. Since equality is the basis of unity, any change altering its main principles inexorably entails the collapse of unity. In his assumption, this almost happened in 2005 when forces inimical to the constitution scored important electoral gains. If the movement had not been violently crushed, it would have certainly resulting in war and disintegration.

By way of illustration, Sebhat takes the case of the United States. The foundation of the American federation is the Constitution, which, if changed, will entail the disintegration of the country. For Sebhat, what Ethiopians have in common with Americans is precisely that for both of them constitutional consensus is the source of nationalism. Just as American nationalism is tied to a constitutional document, so too Ethiopian nationalism derives from the TPLF constitution.
I leave out Sebhat’s illusion that the TPLF constitution originated from a consensus of all the peoples of Ethiopia when we know too well that said consensus was imposed on powerless peoples by the victorious Tigrean and Eritrean guerrilla armies. However, the illusion metamorphoses into arrogance when Sebhat compares the TPLF constitution with the American Constitution. The latter promotes individual rights while the TPLF constitution gives primacy to group rights, that is, to ethnic belonging, the consequence of which is that it works against national integration by isolating and nurturing ethnic states. States in Ethiopia are not administrative units that decentralize power and empower local communities but ethnic enclaves that create national borders within the nation and grant them with the right to secede.

What is most appalling and utterly false is Sebhat’s declaration that the fundamental act of being Ethiopian is an outcome of the TPLF constitution. How could it be so when what we all know so far is that the Ethiopian state and society have their origin in the distant history of the Aksumite kingdom and that their cultural features and history testify to a long and uninterrupted legacy that equally involved Tigreans and Amharas? Even our recent history defines Yohannes, not as the emperor of Tigray, but as the emperor of Ethiopia. The unequivocal reality is thus that Ethiopian nationhood is defined by history, and not by the acceptance of the 1994 constitution. Here we can extend to Ethiopia Margaret Thatcher’s famous statement, to wit, “Europe was created by History; America by Philosophy.” Rather than the constitution begetting Ethiopian nationhood, it presupposes it as the object of its rectification. This reversal of the correct order is typical of the thinking of the TPLF and is reflected in the first statement of the preamble in the form of “We, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia.”

Let me ask a question: when the guerrilla army of the TPLF marched into Amhara territory and finally into Addis Ababa and seized state power, were we supposed to assume that Ethiopia did not exist yet? But then, there is nothing that prevents us from qualifying the march as an invasion of foreign troops, nay, as a colonial conquest. Since I am sure that Sebhat will contest such a characterization, then why does he keep defining Ethiopianness by a constitution when the country existed for a long time prior to the writing of the constitution?

What Sebhat is in reality revealing is the conditional nature of his Ethiopianism. He is Ethiopian so long as the constitution, imposed by the TPLF and conducive to its hegemony over Ethiopia, is the supreme law of the land. What this means if not that Tigray will not agree to remain within Ethiopia if the TPLF loses its hegemonic position. I cannot speak for all Tigreans, among whom many are dedicated Ethiopians, but Sebhat’s position shows that the leadership of the TPLF has been and still is appropriated by individuals who have always posed the issue of Ethiopian unity in conditional terms.
This conditionality explains why many pro-Ethiopian activists and intellectuals consider Sebhat and his likes as nothing more than stooges of the EPLF. Yet, their support for Eritrean independence is just a logical conclusion of their conditional Ethiopianness. One cannot be conditionally Ethiopian while being a resolute defender of the territorial integrity of Ethiopia. Moreover, the hegemonic goal of the TPLF could hardly accommodate a rival organization like the EPLF. Both ideological consistency and interest dictated the TPLF’s determined effort to oust Eritrea from Ethiopia.
Obviously, the perceived fragility of the system subsequent to the demise of Meles Zenawi now drives TPLF people to blackmail Ethiopians. If the TPLF does not rule, Sebhat promises the deluge. Is this not to admit that two decades of forceful enforcement of the constitution were not enough to generate even a semblance of consensus? What a brilliant achievement! Sebhat sounds like those children who agree to play with other children provided they always win.

  1. Dawi
    | #1

    [[..I leave out Sebhat’s illusion that the TPLF constitution originated from a consensus of all the peoples of Ethiopia ..]]

    Sebhat is not as eloquent as the former Meles in explaining things. As we know Meles was flawless. It’s probably correct that WOYANE had only Meles; full stop.

    The “good thing” is they say that Meles had formulated directions for all things under Ethiopian sky, as the supreme leader of all things. :-) Therefore, no worries! At least for a long time to come.

    We can try to figure out what Sebhat is talking about of the constitution however, the bottom line question is what/who is going to keep the country together in the mean time?

    It is already established that for any dictatorship in crises it was better to liberalize the economy than to democratize. Soviet Union disintegrated in thin air and collapsed while China is still growing and intact even trying to control the China Sea today. May be we should thinking now how to get our ports back instead?

    So let us not engage too much in the “luxury” of liberal Democracy at the get go. At this juncture in my opinion, liberal democracy may hinder development and may even dissolve the nation as Sebhat predicted. It is not that far fetched to think in those terms.

    BTW, authoritarian governments have incentives to create more inter-group equality. EPRDF is that. That is why Democracy was slow to arrive in S. Korea, Taiwan and still has not arrived to Singapore.

  2. Ewnetu
    | #2

    To the editor – The title “What Ethiopia Is Up Against Messay Kebede” is misleading please put the name “Messay Kebede” on a second line or rephrase as “What Ethiopia Is Up Against by Messay Kebede”

    Thank you.

  3. Ewnetu
    | #3

    To the editor – The title “What Ethiopia Is Up Against Messay Kebede” is misleading please put the name “Messay Kebede” on a second line or rephrase as “What Ethiopia Is Up Against by Messay Kebede”

    Otherwise, it is a well reasoned article. Thank you once again Prof. Kebede. Your intellect is a breath of fresh air vs. the nauseating stupidity (or attempts to hoodwink us) from these so called leaders.

    Thank you.

  4. Gecho
    | #4

    The best way to deal with claims like Aito Sebhat is to produce clearer and coherent vision and strategy for an Ethiopia that is united and adorned with the many cultures of its people. In the absence of such vision TPLF/EPRDF will remain relatively better united and thus powerful.

    With regards to the constitution…..contrary to what TPLF claims if the rights in the constitution were fairly applicable we certainly would have seen 3 or more smaller countries. So far it apears the constitution was written ONLY to insure Eritrea’s seccesion. The Constitution can easily be used to dismantle Ethiopia in to smaller and weaker entities and to continue the existing dominance in a different way.

    But I hope the newer generation will be more pragmatic and see the benefit of national unity where individual and group rights are respected and the diverse cultures are loved and cared by all Ethiopians. It is my sincere hope to see an Ethiopia adorned with such a beautiful mosaic of wonerful people and cultures. The achievment of such vision requires dedication and intelligent work.

    For close to 17 years Meles and company prepared with their own vision and by 1991 they were able to impose it. The relative unity TPLF had was enough to accomplish the “smooth” secession of Eritrea.

    I have yet to see a clear and coherent alternative vision for Ethiopia that can rally the masses irrespective of ethnicity. That is what is missing!!

  5. Dawi
    | #5

    [[..TPLF could hardly accommodate a rival organization like the EPLF...]]

    This can be taken in two ways. The first one was explained by Prof. Messay.

    The second thing opposition always don’t want to recognize is TPLF/Meles has claimed Adulis port as their own in the past and consequently put together a successful foreign diplomacy of isolating EPLF to the extent of making some foreign diplomats like Dr. Susan Rice look like Ethiopian spokes person at the UN.

    A very crude border sanctions that hurt Tigray region the most; includes stopping the simple chicken & eggs transactions of the brotherly border region folks. That is a huge sacrifice for any political organization to make. At present the (our) PORTS are only used for the camels to urinate on.

    I interpret and see such actions by Woyane/EPRDF as a punishment to the EPLF and all other secessionists to get back to their senses and reconsider coming back to the fold by their own will without a WAR and minimum military engagements. It is a powerful strategy of a 21st century type and is working.

    I have no doubt in my mind bringing Eritrea back in his own terms was the grand plan of the great leader Meles.

  6. ጉረኞች
    | #6

    Dawi
    What are you talking about, explain more? “The second thing opposition always don’t want to recognize is TPLF/Meles has claimed Adulis port as their own in the past”

  7. aha!
    | #7

    Ethiopia has been governed by ex-liberation fronts spearheded by TPLF and/or EPLF, until when they did not agree to exploit Ethiopia together, even after its independence from the colonialist Ethiopia, and the new secessionist fronts of the disgruntled OLF and others not work together with the ex-liberation fronts with no participation from those with national agenda for unity, territorial integrity, sovereignity of Ethiopia and Ethiopians. The last item may be elaborated as individual freedom, liberty and equality to supercede ethnic and secessionist rights, whereas if indivual rights are respected the group rights follow tthrough, but not vice versa, where USA is a living example from its constitutional frame work, having the individual as the center piece for constituional democracy. Whereas in Ethiopia that democracy, which is available to TPLF and TPLF affiliated enterprises, cadres, security forces, police and military forces and foreign corporations, but not available to the silent majority of Ethiopians is superimposed with ethnocracy and/or ethnic dictatorship, minority now and majority ethnic rule in the future due to alignment of parties along ethnic lines/ethnic agenda rather than national agenda, supported by the ideologies of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism built into the constitution as the main operating system of the TPLF/eprdf regime, where eprdf in small caps, the teletafi (ethnic federalist) parties
    serve as acover for TPLF Politbeurro and direct supporters of the constituion along with the loyalist (ethnic federalist) opposition parties, now forming a front with Tigrai-Harena and UDJP (unity for democracy and justice), a subset of the national agenda, designated as OPDF/EFDF/fdre, which puts them as mirror images of the TPLF/eprdf regime. They were aptley portrayed by one Ethiopian before the 2010 election as such: kengideh wedih mircha yemibal neger waga yelewim, inezihima yalew mengist gilibach nachew’. From the stand point of political models we have nothing more than those with ethnic agenda and those with national agenda as the negative forces of disintegration and positive forces of integration, respectively.

    As you correctly put it this a TPLF constitution, a legacy of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi along with the aligment of parties along ethnic lines and division of land mass of Ethiopia majr ethnic groups as a divide and rule policy for the most part to the appartheid policy of South Africa of self-rule and separate developments, denying Ethiopians a shared ownership of the country and shared responsibility for the country, private ownership of land with free market capitalism and democracy to the silent majority of Ethiopians living under abject poverty, famine and high inflationary pressures. Amidst such scenarios, what the TPLF Plitbeurro is defending the the constitution of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism. What Ato sibhat Nega said to the to the challenges of the secession of Eritrea to its independence and he said about defending the TPLF constitution in Interview With VOA and/or ESAT are the same. He said that whoever challenges the constitution: yehe yeandinet milikitachin ina ye itiopiwiwinetachin milikit yehonwin yemitsrere binor torinet ingetmwalen, iniwagalen, I paraphrase. With your elaborative explantion about what sibhat Nega said about defending the constitution and the previous flaws written about the constitution with respect to tranfer of power from the Prime Minister to the Deputy Prime Miniter, puts the flaws of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism as the main frame work of the constitution center stage and focal point between those parities of the national agenda and those with ethnic agenda as their platform, calling for amendment to Article 46, 39 (1) 8, etc and resorting to the original provincial boundries with assorted ethnic groups following the non-violent uprising to freedom from ethnic rule of either minority and/or majority with party alignments along the national agenda so that each party competes how to advance Ethiopia as one nation to the 21st century.

  8. From Gragn ahmed
    | #8

    It is sad both Tigray alites and Amhara historians are fabricating stories and denying history of the people at this juncture.

    There is nothing wrong with ethnic federalism. There is no problem with group rights as long as it does not violate individual rights. American system is not perfect nor is Ethiopian federalism. for all I hate Wayane and for all I hate neftegna historians, I must agree that ethnic federalism is a good thing that came out of oppressed Tigray people by their fellow Amharas.

    We know Eritrea actually was more Ethiopian than Oromo or Ogaden. Even Ogaden was more Ethiopian through Gragn Ahmed than was Oromo under Wako system or the South under haiya Muslims or Tona.

    The Amhara Menelik II changed the land scape of Ethiopia. The word Ethiopia has been used to refer to the North portion of the present Ethiopia for so more than 3000 years as known by the Greeks. So to use Ethiopia for the South simply is wrong. In fact, we need to change the name Ethiopia itself first if we want a new identity. The old identity of Ethiopia simply can not be worn by everybody any more. The more Messay Kebede pushes hard to install the old system of Menelik II he will lose more territories. Still he is writing about his own feelings than about us- those we hate to associate with past history and be associated as well with that excluded fairness to the South and East.

    09/18/12 @ 10:05
    Comment from: Gragn Ahmed [Visitor]
    It is sad both Tigray elites and Amhara historians are fabricating stories and denying history of the people at this juncture.

    There is nothing wrong with ethnic federalism. There is no problem with group rights as long as it does not violate individual rights. American system is not perfect nor is Ethiopian federalism. for all I hate Wayane and for all I hate neftegna historians, I must agree that ethnic federalism is a good thing that came out of oppressed Tigray people by their fellow Amharas.

    We know Eritrea actually was more Ethiopian than Oromo or Ogaden. Even Ogaden was more Ethiopian through Gragn Ahmed than was Oromo under Wako system or the South under haiya Muslims or Tona.

    The Amhara Menelik II changed the land scape of Ethiopia. The word Ethiopia has been used to refer to the North portion of the present Ethiopia for so more than 3000 years as known by the Greeks. So to use Ethiopia for the South simply is wrong. In fact, we need to change the name Ethiopia itself first if we want a new identity. The old identity of Ethiopia simply can not be worn by everybody any more. The more Messay Kebede pushes hard to install the old system of Menelik II he will lose more territories. Still he is writing about his own feelings than about us- those we hate to associate with past history and be associated as well with that excluded fairness to the South and East.

  9. Dawi
    | #9

    [[..What are you talking about, explain more? “The second thing opposition always don’t want to recognize..]]

    Nothing extraordinary my friend; my assumptions are based in what is public knowledge. It has been documented that the port of Axumite Empire Adulis now in Eritrea and likewise the city Axum, now in Tigray are Eritrean/Tigrayan. There is no contention there. Adulis was shown once in the “greater Tigrai” map.

    ER wrote a while ago, after the Woyanne’s war with Eritrea Meles purged about half of the central committee members, putting the final nail on the coffin of Greater Tigray manifesto. Elias said, TPLF under Meles Zenawi’s leadership is not a cause- or ideology-driven organization any more. It is a business mafia…political and military power.

    The “unintended” consequences where Meles/Woyane looked the other way, the over 100,000 non-Tigrean troops in Tigray (a region with a population of 6 million) and as a result, about 1 in every 10 child currently born in Tigray doesn’t have a Tigrean father. Tigreans are also migrating toward south in massive numbers.

    I say such actions says volumes about Meles the leader and his attitude towards ethnicity but opposition don’t take such things into account when they attack the person.

  10. aha!
    | #10

    Since these Killil Mengistats did not exist before, the constitution has established fantacilands such as Oromia that extends from Borena Negelle to Sellalle, from Nekempti to Haremaya Kotu as a prlude to secession to which the digrunled OLF from the ex-liberation fronts have the right to secede upto self determination and a prlude to future boundry conflicts as the case the independence of the Eritean Province. Offcource, all the the teletafi (ethnic federalist) and the loyalist opposition parties, the TPLF led security, the police and military forces are supporting it and the loyalist (ethnic federalist) including those signatory to the Charter are supporting it without taking into account those with the national agenda supported by the silent majority of Ethiopians.

  11. ጉረኞች
    | #11

    Dawi
    I admire your courage to defend the indefensible the late dictator Meles Zenawi. It must be hard on you. I really doubt your sanity after I read what you wrote @# 8. First, you brought an argument of the chicken or egg type, liberalization first than democratization, on the same breath you talked about Adulis, which I thought was there could be some detailed information we missed from Ethiopia-Eritrea ruling. What you pointed out in the second to last paragraph is the anti-Ethiopian attitude of Meles, which we have been saying for years. The midget was good for nothing, late his soul burn in hell.

  12. Dawi
    | #12

    aha said:

    [[... individual freedom, liberty and equality to supercede ethnic and secessionist rights, whereas if indivual rights are respected the group rights follow tthrough, but not vice versa..]]

    Says who? Why not vice versa? If Group rights is working and is keeping the country intact for now, it can be the MEANS to get where we want to be down the line not the END.

    The same with a fast Economic Development as a MEANS to reach liberal democracy in the fastest way, not the END.

    In the latter half of the 20th century, United States, with its free markets and democracy, defeated the Soviet Union, with its centrally planned economy and party dictatorship. But in the 21st century, Dictatorship as in China have learned from the failure of the Soviets. So we already know now “free market” ,”democracy” is not the only way.

    The Chinese said, it didn’t matter if the cat is black or white as long as it catches the mouse. Why not we say the same?

    If we agree the IDEAL is correct, as in the building of a Renaissance Dam, the fast economy is bound to move folks around the country and what ever group rights would be less and less by the time the country reaches middle income. So why waste time in such issues now when we know it is going to be easier to deal with the subject after we become a middle income country?

  13. aha!
    | #13

    What Dawi is pointing out is the power centers within TPLF as pro-eritrea and nonpro Eritrea to establish ti Greater Tigrai with the port of Adulis now assab as being not Ethiopian Port but Tigrean Port, which if and when Tigrai secedes from Ethiopia it becomes part and parcel of Tigrai has nothing to do with the constitutional flaw of ethnic federalism, secessionism and tototaliarinism as the main stay of TPLF/eprdf regime together with the teletafi parties and loyalist opposition parties against those parties with national agenda for unity, territorial integrity, sovereignity of Ethiopia and Ethiopians.

    As far as the integration of Ethiopians society through Zemecha, immigration from drought affected areas to favorable locations are natural phenomena that have been going on for centuries, where assorted ethnic groups have lived in harmoney among the reliligous and among ethnic groups have been disrupted by creation of the ideologies of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism built into the constitution denying individual freedom and equality from superceding ethnic and secessionist rights, free market capitalism and democracy to the silent majority of Ethiopians but limited to TPLF and TPLF and TPLF affiliated enterprises. The other contentious point of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism is the alignment of parties along ethnic lines/ethinc rather than national agenda, which extends to claiming finfine as the capital city of Oromia simultaneous to the cosmopolitan Addis Abeba being the Capital City of Ethiopia, not mention about Afaan Oromo, perhaps as part of the Oromo question.

  14. ጉረኞች
    | #14

    Gragn Ahmed
    What is being said is that there are so many factors involved to create ethnic group. There are cases where only one factor like language could directly identify ethnicity, when the group is smaller. This is not the case for larger groups, e.g. kotu and wollege are not the same. ቆቱና ወለጋ አንድ ዘር አይደሉም አንደውም አይዋደዱም; ይጠፋፋሉ:: በዘር ግንድ ከተሄደ ወለጌዎች ለብቻ ናቸው:: ለዚህ ነው ከአንተ ጋር በፌዴሬሽን የምስማማው::

  15. Dawi
    | #15

    ጉረኞች said:

    [[..I admire your courage to defend the indefensible the late dictator Meles Zenawi. It must be hard on you. …..What you pointed out … is the anti-Ethiopian attitude of Meles…]]

    I respect your opinion however, for anyone who was part of the Ethiopian Student Movement Meles’s detour from the general line of the radical movement is minuscule. I respect and give Meles the highest honor for the life long effort he put to correct the “detour” and putting forward a powerful vision for the country.

    Having said that, the label of tag you put on TPLF/Meles as an “anti-Ethiopian” can be put the same to other organizations like the EPRP. If that is your position on the radical movement in general, I see where you are coming from.

  16. ጉረኞች
    | #16

    Dawi
    “I respect and give Meles the highest honor for the life long effort he put to correct the “detour” and putting forward a powerful vision for the country.” I’m not sure of that. It is too costly for one person to learn at the back of 80 million people and after destruction of the national fabric.

  17. aha!
    | #17

    Dawi that scenario underethnic federalism secessionism and totaliarinism worked in favor of TPLF/EFFORT, TPLF affiliated enterprises and foreign corporations, while hindering individual freedom, liberty and equality in favor of group rights of division of Ethiopian land mass into Ogaen-Somalia and Oromia fantacids, etc. rather than leaving them intact with original provincial boundries as federated states like the United States with its constitution centered around the individual freedom, liberty and equality engraved in the constitution. If you want to support to support the TPLF constitution, written and and supported by ex-liberation fronts and standing by Sibhat Negas assertin of defending the constitution, but do not tell us that ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism promotes individual freedom, liberty and equality, free market capitalism and/or mixed economy along with private ownership of land as one of the means of production and democracy to the silent majority of Ethiopians. If you are not able to defend the the indefesible agenda of ethnic and secessionist politics and/or policies of the TPLF/eprdf regime and its mirror image parties and the secessionist fronts engaged in war skirmishes to secede from the colonialist Ethiopia, much like the Eriteans, try to be loyal to the silent majority tax payers than to the party or parties, think of Ethiopiawinet first and your ethnicity second be it minority or majority ethnic group, then you can see vividly that free market capitalism comes from individual freedom/rights not group freedom/rights along with private ownership of land any where in Ethiopia, but not from entitlement of fantaci lands such as Oromia, Ogaden-Somalia, etc. which are nothing more than a prelude to secessions, and future boundry conflicts, much like the case with the previous Eritrean province, which was declared independent from the colonialist Ethiopia.

  18. eti
    | #18

    @aha!
    Why are always talking about secede,self determination,Greater Tigre……
    The reason is all the rule since menelik up to 1991 failed to build a nation on a strong foundation.Imagine the numbers of gorilla at that time,eritra,tigray,sidamo,somali,oromo, every where .1991 TPLF finished these wars.Eitrea:independant,dialogue and acceptance of art 39,ethnic federalism.So wether you like or not Sabhat Nega’s assertion is the only one that can keep ethiopia together.

  19. sebhatwesha
    | #19

    kebatre ende weyane gize setohal leke ende dictator mote yanesehal,

    weyane bechalew,change the way you dresse,stop eating every thing what exist in ethiopia we can import noddels from china.

    they want to change us the way we look this basterd medre dikala weyane

    i have a great respect for tigrai people always.
    not this medre wesha ye wesha leje.

    hager engentlalen why you didn\t do it at the first day ,that was what the eritrea kifle hager leader isayas has said once.

    you think like you can chage the way the world map looks like today.
    the americans brought you to power now they will get ride of you.
    soon you go to china for hand out you beggers basterd,

    i can not weit to see that sebhat banda follow zenawi soon

  20. aha!
    | #20

    I am basing my arguments upon the ideologies of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism built into the constitution, which Sibhat Nega defends by declaring war over the silent majority subjected to the TPLF Constitution, a fame work for the disintegration, rather integration of Ethiopia, which were governed under Minilik and the subsequent regimes as one nation within the 14 provinces including Eritrea. Offcourse there have been wars on grounds of failing to pay tributes to the central government and wars from one of kings to take over power to rule Ethiopia and wars against Tigrai rebelling against the Central Government, but not as liberation fronts lately from TPLF and EPLF to secede from the colonialist Ethiopia along with current ex-liberation fronts, but were empowered to govern Ethiopia under the ideologies of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism built into the constitution, which denies individual freedom, liberty and equality to supercede ethnic and secessionist rights, free market capitalism, with private ownership of land and democracy to silent majority of Ethiopians, but available to TPLF and TPLF affilated enterprises and foreign corporations to engage in exploitations political strangle hold of the country’s resources are the conditions he can not also refute. The secessionist wars you are aluding to are well and alive under the current regime under article 39 (1) and the division of land by major ethnic groups is alive under Article 46 and the sovereignity of Ethiopia under Article 8, etc. that I belive are subjects for considerations for amendments after the non-violent uprising for freedom from autocratic and ethnocratic governments of minority and/majority ethnic rule posed by OPDF/EUDF/fdre.

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