The Scramble for Ethiopia Messay Kebede

April 1st, 2013 Print Print Email Email

What else could better express the existence in today’s Ethiopia of more than eighty political parties, out of which ethnic parties represent the overwhelming majority, than the term “scramble?” That for now the TPLF holds together the disjoined parts of the country by force for its own sectarian interests only reconfirms the accuracy of the term. How did this come about?

When we try to understand what happened to Ethiopia and, by extension, to Eritrea, since the overthrow of the imperial regime, we are invariably overtaken by a mounting perplexity. Unlike the imperial regime, which never declared its intention to empower the people, the political movements that opposed the regime emphatically and without exception asserted their primary and unique goal to be the liberation and empowerment of the people. The EPRP, MEISON, the Derg, the OLF, the TPLF, and the EPLF, to name the most important ones, all claimed to fight for the cause of the people. Yet, none of the movements that succeeded to seize power and implement their programs came anywhere near to fulfilling the promise of liberation and empowerment. On the contrary, all ended in similar types of abject dictatorial and sectarian rules.

The dominant explanation attributes the failures to accidental derailments. It argues that the initial intention and corresponding organizations were fully committed to the goal of liberation until they were derailed by the rise to the leadership position of unfit or fraudulent individuals, who used their position to institute a dictatorial rule and surround themselves by cynical and self-serving groups. Mengistu Haile Mariam, Meles Zenawi, and Isiyas Afeworki negatively altered, so it is said, the original good intention of the movements that brought them to power.

The trouble with the explanation is that the notion of derailment presupposes what needs to be explained. How could individuals, however smart, determined, and cunning they may be, succeed in overturning movements that were often able to overcome very challenging situations. Even if it was short-lived, the triumph of the Derg over so many opponents remains an exploit. Equally remarkable is the defeat that the EPLF and the TPLF inflicted on the military machine of the Derg. It just begs the question to assert that one or several individuals were able to misdirect movements with such proven strength.
Hence the need for a change of paradigm: instead of taking for granted an initial good intention, what if the devil was already in the intention? Rather than derailment, such an explanation sees continuity between departure and arrival, despite contrary appearances. What happened and is happening are already contained in the initial intention, which therefore was itself vicious. In other words, though the movements promised liberation and empowerment, the real and hidden goal was self-promotion and exclusive control of power. Ideologies advocating the liberation of the masses by revolutionary elites, such as Leninism, Maoism, and ethnonationalism, came in handy and quickly spread like a bushfire.

It must not be made to seem that the adoption of these ideologies by the revolutionary elites was a deliberate deception. The tragedy is that they honestly believed in these ideologies and honestly thought that they were working for the empowerment of the people. The fault was and still is in their mind, in the mistaken understanding of what liberation and empowerment mean. The misunderstanding can be traced to their colonial attitude toward their own people, itself being a resultant of the colonial education they received and thank to which they earned their elite status. The education convinced them that they are the native heirs to the civilizing mission of the colonizer, that the measure of their own modernity is the extent to which they see themselves as tutors and agents of change.

At first look, being agent of change is rather positive and expected from educated people. The problem, however, was that it was conceived in the colonial fashion: it was perceived as an imposition from above and deliberately excluded the active participation of the people. Modernity was not what people bring about through their active engagement and creativity; it was a dictate flowing from the enlightened ones and as such demanding passive compliance. The relationship that exists between elites and the masses is not one of answerability, but of elites fashioning their people according to an idea of modernity that defines them as domesticators, thereby entitling them to absolute power. Whether you call the goal socialism, revolutionary democracy, national liberation movement, it always amounts to a dictatorial rule lining up a whole people in the name of a self-serving idea of modernity.

Ethiopians who are familiar with my books on Ethiopia know that I have developed this flawed idea of modernity and its toxic implications from various angels. The happy surprise for me was that the idea has now crossed into Eritrea’s intellectual space, as witnessed by Yosief Ghebrehiwet’s article titled “Eritrea’s Drive for Modernity: In Search of Asmara” posted on Asmarino. Not only is the article witty and very perceptive, but it also proposes a paradigm change in our understanding of what happened both in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Thus, in analyzing the Eritrean case, Yosief barely refers to the usual motive for the uprising, namely, the national oppression by the Amhara. Instead he focusses on the impact of Italian colonization, which created “a generation that imitated the Italians in every gesture without having any understanding of the beauty of the Italian culture . . . a generation that contemptuously gave its back to the Habesha culture.” The imitation induced an abstract idea of modernity, that is, a conception of modernity “devoid of human factor” and hence intrinsically totalitarian. The modernity of the uprooted is paradoxical: though it speaks of national liberation and empowerment, it is nothing but a replica of colonization by foreign natives. Yosief courageously writes: “the structure of Shaebia’s army that marched to Asmara looked like a colonial army, with the urban elite replacing the Italian positions at the top and the peasants accorded their old place of askaris at the bottom – this was how they came to colonize Asmara.”

The reason for Eritrean uprising is thus obvious: it was a renewed scramble for Ethiopia, a reconstitution of the Italian invasion by natives. This applies to the secessionist movements in Ogadan and Oromia as well, since they aspire to dismantle the conquest by which Menilik defeated the colonial design on Ethiopia. In construing the return to a pre-Menilik political situation as decolonization of Oromia, Ogaden, etc., these movements draw, as elsewhere in Africa, the entitlement to rule from being enlightened natives pushing out alien colonizers. In other words, the ideology of Amhara colonization is how elites invent an ascriptive legitimacy to rule based on ethnic belonging. Without the ideology, the elites would have to justify their entitlement to rule by the implementation of socioeconomic progress, that is, by actual achievement and merit rather than by natural relatedness.

Needless to say, the creation of an ascriptive right to rule through the denunciation of Amhara colonization is little prone to democratic competition and accountability. Accordingly, the so-called national liberation movements are not so much liberation as elite conflicts for the control of territories resulting from the dismantling of Ethiopia. Speaking of the Eritrean war of liberation, Yoseif rightly says, “it was a war fought between Addis Ababa and Asmara elite. In between, the peasants of both Ethiopia and Eritrea perished fighting the respective urban elite’s causes.”

Elite conflicts accurately sum up the Ethiopian revolution and the ethnonationalist assaults on Ethiopia subsequent to that revolution. The reason for the radicalization of the Ethiopian educated elite through the adoption of Leninism in the 60s and 70s was the need to dislodge the old aristocracy with its bureaucracy and military apparatus from power and the control of resources. Class struggle furnished the ideology necessary to mobilize the working people against the old state apparatus and the church, not so much to liberate them as to empower elites defining themselves as “revolutionaries.” In the meantime, ethnonationalist elites were preparing the ground for another round of elite conflicts, this time by creating a form of exclusion based on ethnic belonging, which resulted in the defeat of the Ethiopian Revolution by ethnonationalist forces.

What should be underlined is that the class struggle and the ethnonationalist forms of exclusion find their common source in the colonial understanding of modernity, that is, of modernity as an imposition from above and whose main purpose is to benefit the few. Not only this form of modernization does not tolerate grass-root movements (autonomous civil societies, professional organizations, and unions), independent political parties, and a liberal economic system, but the narrowness of its goal stemming from the colonial model of modernization reserves economic benefits for the few. Such a restricted development further divides elite and unleashes a violent struggle for the control of scarce resources.

As a result, the country moves in a vicious circle: the empowerment of the few at the expense of the majority curtails economic development, which curtailment exasperates elite conflicts for the control of scarce resources. No more than overseas colonizers, internal or native colonizers can allow the enlargement of social wealth and distribution under pain of losing the absolute control of power that their faulty idea of modernity justifies. The opposite, that is, grass-roots modernization is anathema to them because it pushes for the democratization of all forms of social life and for the accountability to the people. By definition, colonizers, those who “civilize,” be they external or internal, cannot but target absolute power.

  1. Deriba Guru
    | #1

    This is a very honest critical analysis of sad phenomena. It is written with clarity. It is A VIVID PRESENTATION OF WHAT CAN BE CONCLUDED TO BE NAKED POWER TRIP. IS THAT WHAT ALL THE POLITICKING IS ALL ABOUT? WE SHOULD DECLARE THAT THERE WAS NEVER AN ETHIOPIAN REVOLUTION NEITHER WERE THERE REVOLUTIONARIES in the mold of the aspired ‘Heroes’ OF THEIRS that emerged IN faraway places like China, Albania and Russia.
    REGRETABLY, IT HAS BEEN ALMOST A COMPLETE WASTE OF TIME.

  2. ድህና ጉርሻ?
    | #2

    1. I agree with your comments on idea of modenity and your analysis of link between mass and elits in the modernaisation.
    2. I disagree with your accusation of non-Amhara elites. All elites of Ethiopia are narrow minded, ethnocentric and do not represent view or aspiration of their ethnic group or Ethiopians.
    I do not buy your accusation of non-Amhara elites because Amhara elites were and are members of these parties DERG, MESION and EPRP.
    Are you saying Amhara were not and are not working with TPLF and EPLF?
    Let us put and end to this lies. Stop blaming elites in this ethnic group or that group.
    When the political fashion changes every politician or elites wears that Tibiko.
    Call it socialism, federalism, fanoism, dergisim, eprpism Janohoyism,,,arbegnaisim ethnicisitism

    3. I disagree with your analysis of the so called most important parties. You did not compare likes with likes.
    EPRP, MESION AND DERG were not ethnic based. MESION is different from EPRP because it chose to work with DERG. All (DERG, EPRP, TPLF and ELF are armed except MESION.
    EPLF was not ethnic based party even though Tigrean speaking dominate it. It is true it was fighting for independence from Ethiopia but EPRP and TPLF supported it.
    Mengistu Haile Mariam, Meles Zenawi, and Isiyas Afeworki were fighting for different goals and TPLF, EPRP and EPLF were fighting against DERG.
    How do you compare these leaders?
    One thing they commonly share is they do not have support from the majority of the public if they do not use brutal force.
    4. We are not the only Country or people who are being confused or lost direction/nationality.

    Look at what is happening in Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, Greek. It is the elites of these counries who are messing up with their countries identity, wealth and politics.
    Elites accross the world are not working for their people but for external forces.

    5. What is your suggestion to come out from this vicious circle?

  3. Mustafa
    | #3

    The Tigray People`s Liberation Front (TPLF) has come to control Ethiopia to exploit resources and build the future repblic of Tigray.The independent republic of Tigray is still in the minds of the leaders and members of the TPLF. The TPLF have convinced the people of Tigray that the Amharas are their sworn in enemies and oppressors. Thus living with the Amharas in one democratic state is not in the interests of the people of Tigray. Political power in the united and democratic state of Ethiopia will emanate from the majority votes and the Tigrayans or Tegarus will lose in this power sharing arrangement. The fear of the Tigrayans or Tegarus is that their enemies the Amharas will use their sheer number and seize power if fair and free elections are allowed and held in Ethiopia. Democracy is a number game and the Tigrayans do not like it because this will transfer power to the Amharas. Thus many Tigrayans see a democratic and united Ethiopia as a death sentence against them and prefer to go it alone and form their independent, peaceful and prosperous republic of Tigray.

  4. ግሩም
    | #4

    Dear Messay Kebede is now a bit closer to the hovering reality like a ghost in the background except one thing that he knowingly/systematically or unknowingly omitted the burning issue of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive.
    To remember some historical issues Feudalism was a system or social order that was maneuvered by few elitist lords. Then when the transition was made to the old capitalist system then the war and class struggle was mainly between the newly emerging modernist Capitalist elites and the Old backward but bold Feudalist elites. And human dynamism paved the way in such a way that the newly emerging capitalists system emerged as a new social order replacing the old feudalist system. How ever the governance by few elites at the top of the pyramid still perseveres even in the new modern Global Capitalist system till these very days. What really took place was the shift of elites with regard to type of property ownership, in this case industry rather than land following the type of political governance as a state machine. And like wise those entitled to control and govern the state apparatus at the top also made a reform in such a way that they become compatible with the new capitalist system and capitalist elites. Like there was a close elitist relationship between the emperors/Kings and the land lords then same but evolved close elitist relationship was established between the emperors/Kings and the new emerging Capitalist elites. As has always been the case in those old days those emperors/Kings at the top lever of the political apparatus has always the privilege to acquire both political power as well as economic power. When the first Bank of England was established in the 16th century in those old days those emperors/Kings at the top lever of the political apparatus had a significant share with the newly emerging bourgeoisie Capitalists elites. The establishment of such banks was very related to the wars such emperors/Kings advance abroad and its expense covered sometimes by means of loan from such newly emerging bourgeoisie Capitalists elites. And because there is a need of trust and guarantee for the loan to be reliably repaid back to such newly emerging bourgeoisie Capitalists elites, then the essence of a modern parliamentary system with a democratically elected peoples representatives that can responsibly handle such loans, irrespective of the existence of kings/emperors who borrow the war expense, comes in to existence. So this is how Modern Capitalism, with a history of 500 years, is historically inherently very related to War, Banking and Electoral Democracy. Like in those old days of feudalism land was owned and controlled fully by the land lords then in the ensuing capitalist system that has replaced feudalism then Means of Production and Money Capital has been owned and controlled fully by the Capitalist elites. Unearned elitist ownership of land was a common denominator in Feudalism and like wise in capitalism then unearned elitist ownership of Means of Production and Money Capital is a common denominator. So like the saying goes on there is nothing new under the sun in that inherently intra-domain and inter-domain class struggle for control of political and economic power with in the few elites themselves and also between the few elites and the rest majority mass has persevered for so many centuries till these very days. We have to understand that Global Capitalism is some sort of Gigantic Pyramid shape class Structure globally as well as locally. The system is well designed in such a way that it mainly benefits the very few at the apex of the pyramid and disregards and hurts the rest majority mass at the base of the pyramid by systematically siphoning wealth from downwards upwards. Divide and Rule, based on race, ethnicity, religion, sex ….. in order to form a coherent class structure is the inherent insidious inner workings of Global Capitalism. The very ethnically driven socio-political and socio-Economic system implemented in Ethiopia, including the demonization dehumanizing and ethnic cleansing mainly targeting Amhara as a main enemy and obstacle, is the result as well as part and parcel of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects. Look carefully the global wars tactically perpetrated under different disguises but whose eventual strategic end-game aim is resource grabbing, by perpetually creating external enemy, that is impoverishing and agonizing the poor global mass especially Africa and 3rd world nations. So creating an in-advance external enemy, like TPLF and EPLF has been insidiously doing on Amhara, is the same modus-operandi of Global Capitalism advancing different interventionist and expansionist wars whose eventual strategic end-game aim is resource grabbing for its chaotic and destructive business cycle. Following the battle of Adwa and the Victory of Adwa through the main leadership of Emperor Menelik, that was the consequence of The Berlin Conference aimed at Scramble For Africa, then mainly Amhara and Orthodox Church, because of its nationalist anti-colonialist stand and resistance, has been the main target (labeled as main enemy) of Western Colonizing powers for so many decades. The second colonizing strive of Italy and its European backers after 40 years of preparation was also unsuccessful though it was bloody and has caused great destruction for this historical nation. So because direct blatant colonialism like in those old days was unsuccessful and inefficient, then Western colonial powers have to devise an indirect means systemically using treacherous surrogate local mercenaries and comprador-elites like TPLF and EPLF with no love, respect and trust for their nation under the banner of Liberation and Democracy in order to install them as their self-serving stooge Client-Regimes. Now days following the end of old blatant colonialism and the ensuing some sort of superficial political emancipation as sovereign nation, for the last 60 years and in continuum the entire Africa and 3rd world nations have been systematically ruled and their resources exploited and the majority mass abjectly impoverished by Global Capitalism through self-serving stooge Client-Regimes installed by Western powers. The very tragically amazing thing in Ethiopia is that unlike other African and 3rd world nations Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects implemented in Ethiopia by its TPLF self-serving stooge Client-Regimes is that it has the insidious intention of revenge and compensation because Ethiopia was historically anti-colonialist trademark for the rest of Africa and 3rd world nations. So dehumanizing and demoralizing Ethiopians through savage governance of oppression, abject impoverishment and mass migration of Ethiopians especially the Amharas has the sole intention of Revenge and Compensation for things not done in Ethiopia during the time of those old days of barbaric colonialism in order to deprive the pride of Ethiopians and Ethiopiawinet. So in order to advance such diabolical agenda then foreign Western colonizing powers has done three main things. The first one is to identify and then exploit some sort of internal differences and conflicts based on ethnicity or religion as sectarian loopholes that can serve as the main source our social disharmony based on some sort of back history. The second one is to manufacture and create some sort of victimizing and victimized external enemy, like Amhara and its main Religion of Orthodox Church. The third one is to identify and then lull and bribe some self-serving local agents who fall to such traps to serve as messengers or mercenaries. And then accordingly foreign Western colonizing powers lulled and bribed the remnants of Tigrean treacherous Elites who had been mainly siding with the Italians during the second invasion of Italy. So TPLF and EPLF are the results of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. As modern day Global Capitalism has a history of around 500 years then Colonialism and imperialism (based on Central MASTER Empire and its Peripheral serving Nations ruled by SLAVE Client-Regimes like TPLF) are the main inherent attributes of Global Capitalism for its resource grabbing and market monopoly. When I say foreign Western colonizing powers lulled and bribed the remnants of treacherous Tigrean Elites who had been mainly siding with the Italians during the second invasion of Italy I mean the that today they made such treacherous Tigrean elites achieve the unprecedented Economic Empire Like EFFORT and its affiliated food-chains mainly serving the ethnic Tigreans with the money mainly obtained through foreign aid and loan in the name of majority Ethiopians by abusing the political power they achieve through military conquest. So EFFORT is not as such the legacy of TPLF today’s claimed Revolutionary Democracy or that of its old days Socialist or communist Ideology like MLLT during the gorilla struggle with Derg. All such masks of TPLF to cover-up its true insidious agenda are just to mislead the naive and gullible Ethiopian intellectuals and politicians who simply hype and brag about democracy and dictatorship with such shallow ideals that do not hold water. To substantiate the issue of this misleading cover-up of TPLF I can mention one very blatant simple example. For example so many of us accepted the official overt narrative that TPLF was fighting Derg Just because Derg was dictatorial and oppressive with no human rights and democratic values. But the true insidious covert agenda has been recently uncovered that TPLF was not as such anti-Derg because of its undemocratic dictatorial and oppressive nature like other 3rd African rulers but rather because it was rather anti-Amhara and eventually anti-Ethiopia so that after toppling Derg it can advance its true insidious agenda. So like wise why we naively and gullibly accept that TPLF has been advancing Socialist or Communist ideology just because it has claimed to be so through Revolutionary Democracy? Is it not true that TPLF even created lame artificial Opposition groups so that it achieves legitimacy and righteousness through its bogus and phony electoral democracy? I tell confidently that if our fellow Ethiopians wisely understand the history of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive then TPLF is likewise doing its MASTER Global Capitalism intrigues and schemes. Any body who can tell me that Derg(who officially decreed and advanced Socialist ideology)lulled and bribed artists, famous individuals, politicians and intellectuals with money and other advantages the way TPLF has been doing it for the last 22 years? The very fact of the matter is that even political and intellectual elites of any sort even outside of the TPLF domain who claim that they fight for Ethiopia against TPLF are very opportunist who worship the West and its global Capitalism as a divine social order. The very reason such Ethiopian Elites outside of the TPLF domain accuse and label TPLF as some sort of communist or Socialist ideologue, while in reality TPLF is the very Stooge Client-Regime of the West for its Global Capitalism, is just because such elites still want to serve same Western powers and its Global Capitalism under the disguise of bogus Democracy. And according to such opportunist Elites out side of the domain of TPLF, then eventually making regime-changes in Ethiopia what looks like for Western powers and its Global Capitalism is like changing diaper for the kid. What happened in Tunisia and Egypt under the disguise of Arab-Revolution is something like this, changing diaper for the kid. Real power is still concentrated and vested under Western powers and its Global Capitalism through stooge-client Regimes and not concentrated and vested in the majority poor people who shout in streets and avenues for demonstration opposing the oppressive and exploiting Stooge Client-regimes in power. Though Benali or Mubarek is out of office officially after serving for so long time as Stooge Client-regimes and comprador-elites in power serving global capitalism, then its well entrenched remnant tentacles in the military, security and technocratic bureaucracy apparatus that has also well established its own well entrenched economic empire is still in power controlling the nation. The same is true in Ethiopia under TPLF. And I can tell confidently that such schemes are the inner workings of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. As is said before by you Messay Kebede then I can assert same mentality in that there is in fact political and economic power struggle between upper class or middle class elites themselves found in different domain based on ethnicity or religion and sometimes one day even based on sexuality. However the most important point is understanding our historical and inherent social fabric and class structure as an Ethiopian that is viable and equilibrium to sustain and survive as a viable social order. Today the overwhelming challenges posed against Ethiopiawinet has to be reviewed and scrutinized with regard to the history of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. So many fellow Ethiopian time and again talk about TPLF being ethnically driven, oppressive, plundering, sometimes calling it the new Apartheid, and also talk about land grabbing and farmers dislocation, massive migration abroad and the modern day slave labour committed against our Ethiopian women and girls in Arab countries and they talk also about so many symptomatic problems. But they do not pose such a critical question. Why this all happened? Why? Why? Why? What is the root cause of this all evil? For me the very overwhelming crucial factor for these all evil things happening is Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. TPLF as a paid mercenary agent and Stooge Client-Regime is loyally advancing this project. Demonizing and ethnic cleansing of Amhara is also part and parcel of this project. To weaken and then dismantle former strong Yugoslavia Serbs were the main target or fabricated external enemy and obstacle identified and then demonized by Western colonizing powers and its system of global capitalism. Like wise Amharas are Today Serbs of Ethiopia. Demonizing, attacking and then weakening Amharas is part and parcel of weakening and then eventually dismantling/Balkanizing greater Ethiopia. And Western colonizing powers offered this dirty bid for TPLF and EPLF and TPLF proved itself that it can carry out this dirty task even more than the colonizers them selves can do it by themselves. That is why FDR(Franklin Roosevelt of USA) once said that Mr. X is such a son of a bitch but he is our son of a bitch. Mr. X is some Latin American stooge leader I forget it to mention his name. TPLF is like that for Western colonizing powers. Meles does not have his own version of legacy what makes him unique in such unprecedented scale is that he the first Ethiopian who is such a perfect stooge servant of Western powers and its Global Capitalism modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. The exact opposite of Meles is Hugo Chavez of Venezuela who has been audaciously fighting well against Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. What we need today is Hugo Chavez of Ethiopia and not as such self-serving comprador-elites under the disguised banner of bogus democracy who simply oppose TPLF but eventually who thrive to advance by repeating the same Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. Please all fellow Ethiopian elites first please become honest for your conscious have your own class consciousness and then identify for what part of the society you stand for. I mean your identify your class. I mean be honest with it and I do not mean that you do not have the right to chose and belong to whatever class you want to belong. But please do not confuse and mislead the rest poor majority mass under the banner of disguised bogus democracy. If the majority mass is under the modern slavery of Economic subjugation by being disempowered from having the control and ownership of means of production and Money-Capital then how comes political freedom achieved through bogus democracy? Economic-Freedom and Political-Freedom are two inseparable sides of the same coin and If there is no real Economic-Freedom then there is no real Political-Freedom and the converse is also true.
    For the last 22 years naive and gullible intellectuals and politicians in the opposition camp till recently just hyped about TPLF being a revolutionary democrat or undemocratic or ethnically driven ideologue but they just ignored about the Economic Empire of TPLF through EFFORT.TPLF’s EFFORT is such a good exemplary manifestation of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. EFFORT is the reward for TPLF for its dirty business it has been advancing Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects for he last 40 years and in continuum till these very days. Who are the main beneficiaries of EFFORT? The main beneficiaries of EFFORT are Its TPLFites local comprador elites and the ethnically and politically associated food chain and the affiliated foreign global capitalists in the business chain. Any body who can tell me this sort of scenario or phenomenon has the fishy essence or semblance of old MLLT socialism or communism or the current hyped revolutionary democracy as is claimed by TPLF? None at all!!! After the end of cold-war between West’s capitalism and that of former Soviet Socialism culminated by the temporary fall of socialism and the temporary victory of Capitalism then It is the at most possible intellectual betrayal and ignorance to declare or accept that TPLF, which is the very product of Cold-war and Neo-Colonialism, advances old MLLT socialism or communism or the current hyped revolutionary democracy as is claimed by TPLF or Meles in today’s Ethiopia for the last 22 years. This very perverted mentality mainly originates from the misguided mentality of our politicians and intellectuals who view that West’s global capitalism means global democracy. West’s global capitalism has so many undemocratic and autocratic friendly Client-Regimes( even blatantly monarchic as is the case in the seven GCC nations like Saudi Arabia Qatar, United Arabia Emirates …) than friendly Democratic sovereign nations. Any body who remembers regime changes through the interventionist overthrow of democratically elected governments like in 1953 in Iran then in 1960 in Congo and then in 1970s in Chile reminds how West’s global capitalism is inherently undemocratic. As far as I understand the very mythical confusion among so many naive and gullible Ethiopian intellectuals is that they automatically attribute Democracy and human rights to Global capitalism as if its is its intrinsic virtues and values. However the reality on the ground is quite the opposite. What so many naive and gullible Ethiopian intellectuals and politicians refer to us is the usually showy electoral democracy in those Western nations like USA or UK where political stooges of the shadowy capitalist elites exchange political power peacefully through two or three party system through periodic political election. Here I respect and support exchange of political power peacefully through periodic political election. But the main question is “under the control of who is the real power?”. And also to which class the political figures like Bush or Obama belong to and whose interest they mainly advance? For the poor lower class majority mass or the upper very few supper rich class? The other thing is that the main capital seat of global Capitalism like USA or UK as a central empire has to be relatively democratic, peaceful and stable than the rest peripheral 3rd world nations so that the mass at those imperial nations has to support foreign waged wars for resource grabbing even for the economic advantage of the mass itself to have job opportunity. And due to this reason the majority of those lower class and middle class peoples living in the west like USA or UK supported those foreign wars under different disguises or at least keeps quite indifferently as long as those wars are beneficial to the local population economically as well as morally like by saying I am Americana. Even the very welfare-state in those Western nations that benefited the middle class and the lower class that was implemented during those times of cold war era was due to the influence of former Soviet Socialist ideologue and its inherent welfare-state economic system that has expanded even to the Eastern Europe. So the welfare-state in those Western nations was in order to prevent the expansion of former Soviet Socialist ideologue and its inherent welfare-state economic system to the rest of Western nations. What happens then after following the end of cold war after the triumph of West’s Global Capitalism over that of former USSR Global Socialism? Then Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects become effectively implemented and become globally pervasive without any challenging rival of the other polar opposite of former USSR and its global socialist ideologue. Then what happens is not only this but also that the chickens are coming back home to roast becomes a reality that following the 2008 financial crisis then by being jobless and homeless the very lower class and middle class citizens and peoples of the West become the very victims of its own governments that is loyally advancing global capitalism’s Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that mainly benefits the very few supper rich upper class. And due this bank bailout and austerity measure becomes the modus-operandi of the system and due to the rich becomes even richer and the poor becomes even more poorer. Following the end of cold war the same is true in our country after the coming of TPLF in to power but the difference is that it is also mainly ethnically driven like weakening and exterminating Amhara labeling it as an external enemy and then politically as well as economically empowering the Tigreans ethnicity over the rest of the society. This is the insidious inner workings of global capitalism’s Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects in order to create and establish coherent local class-structure compatible to global class-structure. This is how the law of the pyramid works. As I perseveringly assert that the root cause is Global Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that mainly benefits the very few supper rich upper class, the solution is the exact opposite of 21st Century Global Socialism that stands for the real emancipation of majority poor mass and mankind in general. Unless the very globally pervasive order of the day system is critically scrutinized and challenged with honesty audacity and wisdom then true emancipation of humanity can not be achieved through mere rhetoric of bogus democracy or human right activism. It is the system stupid. And what has happened in our nation for the last 22 years and in continuum, be it ethnically driven system and its ensuing political, economic, social, religious, cultural, psychological crisis, is the main result and also part and parcel of this global social order. Why we keep quite about it? I say it again It is the system stupid. Let’s speak and scream the truth as it is mainly through truth that we can achieve our true emancipation and not rather through cover-up and falsehood. The newly evolving Global Capitalism is ruled by the following two meta-governing rules.
    1)The fittest individual or interest-group through unbridled individualism of atomic-self maximization under any means (military might, war, occupation, exploitation, mass impoverishment, de-population, raping of mother nature and earth, intrigue, corruption, assassination…) and cost of others wins and survives in life. This is back to Darwinism as is in natural selection and survival of the fittest.
    2) Any thing on earth, including human beings, can/must serve as an intermediary commodity for the business cycle of perpetual maximization of profit money capital accumulation through money capital sequencing.
    The above two meta-governing rules are such a very clear and present danger posed for all humanity and its associated life and life-support systems. Our nation and Ethiopiawinet under TPLF for the last 22 years and in continuum is also under the savage bondage and challenges of this foreign imposed global social order lurking in the background. TPLF barbarically dehumanizes murders, displaces, impoverishes …. not only Amharas but also others just mainly because it gets foreign aid through loan and donation. Who are the backers and funders of TPLF to do this dirty business? So it is high time to not only focus on TPLF but also to focus on those behind TPLF. How on earth a certain ethnic minority society called the Tigrean Society with a population of 6 or more millions manages to become this much powerful to maneuver to cause such sort of massive unprecedented large scale destruction and ethnic cleansing on today on Amharas and then next on others in such historical nation with out the insidiously systematically well organized and well devised help of foreign powers. The solution to such ethnic cleansing is to locally form unity ignoring minor differences and also to find alliance from foreign nations abroad advancing the tendency of Global Socialism and respect of humanity in general. I do not have that much trust on the west especially in USA and UK to thwart this farce in this historical nation because they are gamblers who only advance their own selfish interest. They may help some other self-serving elites, even the very elites who claim they stand for the victimized Amharas, other than the incumbent TPLF and Tigrean elites to make superficial regime change but the end-game is the same. Yes the end-game is to maintain the status-quo of Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. So all the time who profits eventually is self-serving crafty minority comprador elites compliant to global capitalism and not as such the down trodden poor majority mass. And that is why I say we need the new Hugo Chavez of Ethiopia who is so nationalist as well as democratic like Hugo Chavez of Venezuela for the true emancipation of Ethiopia and majority Ethiopians. And the solution is to the globally pervasive problems of Global Capitalism is Global Socialism. The scramble for Ethiopia is part and parcel of the scramble for Africa and other 3rd world nations undertaken by Global Capitalism and its modern day Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic projects that are globally pervasive. The difference is that Ethiopia is the new conquest through TPLF and EPLF who are stooge agents of foreign colonial powers who have been tirelessly seeking and thriving to grab such opportunity.

    God Bless Ethiopia and the whole world!!!

  5. Tecola W. Hagos
    | #5

    This article by Prof Messay Kebede is to be read by all who truly seek the truth about the perplexing and meandering saga of Ethiopia’s political life for the last half century, especially in the period after 1974, in the hands of leaders from the military and/or the many “liberation” fronts. Messay has condensed for us, in mere three pages, profound original insights why we, the people of Ethiopia (that includes ‘Eritreans’), are unable to overcome our dictatorial and tyrannical impulses both in ourselves and in our leaders. This article must be read and reread carefully, for it is layered with a series of profound and challenging ideas. Messay’s emphasis on “Italian Colonialism” in Ethiopia’s northern territories (renamed as ‘Eritrea’ since 1890) as the main source of the distortion of the ethos of the elite directly or derivatively in both communities that gave rise to the form of intolerant and dictatorial leadership currently, even after “liberation” and the establishment of new governments, is truly an original and profound perception. I too have read Yosief Ghebrehiwet’s article titled “Eritrea’s Drive for Modernity: In Search of Asmara”, and I am much impressed with his insight and courage in calling a spade a spade. All forms of liberation start with self examination. Thanks much Messay.
    Tecola W. Hagos

  6. Sam
    | #6

    Messay’s article is well excuted. He wrote “the initial intention and corresponding organizations were fully committed to the goal of liberation, until they were derailed by the rise to leadership position unfit or fraudlent individuals.” He wrote this to discount the argument some made that the party like EPRP, OLF, TPLF, ELF so on had the belief in empowering the people at the outset, but in the process the bad guys controlled power to use it as they wished:dictatorialy. Messay does not want to hear this “good intention” nonsense. He asked “what if the devil was already in the intention?” I am not saying wehter I know if it is the devil is in the intention or not. But I do not discount,however, totally the bad guys coming as winner theory either. The best example is EPRP. EPRP was formed by relatively well-informed individuals, taking into account the time of their formation of the party. EPRP lost almost all its leaders before 1970 Ethiopian calender. If EPRP had seized political power in 1970, Ethiopia would have been led by a few individuals who barely read Marxism, pretty much feudalist in their every otherr thinking. It might not be the whole answer, but individuals matter.

  7. Zerayakob Yared
    | #7

    “TEGARUS” doesn’t exist! I can make also out of Mustafa, so many ሸፋፋ ስሞች!
    A TIGRAWAY(m) and a TIGRAWEYTI(w) are TEGARU in PLURAL. Since i know how lost my original name, i am allergic to any kind of identity ማንጋደድ! ማንኛውም አይነት ማንጋደድ መጠራጠርን ያስከትላል:: መጠራጠር ደግሞ አብሮ መኖርን ያውካል!! ዮሴፍ ገብረሂይወትን አስመልክቶ የሰፈሩት ጥቅሶች ይማርካሉ:: የኤርትራን ድረ ገፆች ስለማልከፍት አላየሁትም ነበር:: እስኪ አሁን እንግዲህ እንደምንም “ኮትልኬም” ቢሆን ከፍቸ ለማንበብ እሞክራለሁኝ!

  8. Anon
    | #8

    Thank you Dr. Messay, for your attempt to explain how the EPLF-TPLF led revolution failed to materialize to empower the vast majority of the people as these organizations claimed they are set out to do just this. In order, to come up to sensible answer to the perplexity you raised, it is not enough to view the life of these movements as an impetus of a reaction to colonial rule. Beside, one must have access to their secret documents to descern about the dynamics of these illusive organizations.Othere wise, what can be accountable for multiple purges that took place, to stamp out potential contenders, within these fronts?

    Let us not forget these twin LFITES are extremely clandestine organizations who used multi-layer control mechanism within their own organizations,and ranks to to track down potential, rising popular, leaders.Loyaists to to both Isayas Afewerki and Zenawi were instrumantal,assasinate,poisen and symerilly excute popular individuals. Added with this, both societies ,where these leaders spring,areextrimely vulnerable to follow a dictatorial form of leadership personality. That is why it is very important to seek and sift their secret documents and make it available to the publick.

    [Gerum]

    In case if you still entertain the notion you are not detected as to what your hidden motiveis for being in this forum hear it from me.
    As I read often your comments, I come to realize you have a tendency to change the topic and lecture your audience about Globalism. It is clear you do this with an intention to distract participants. By the way who is your source for message you posted on this issue? Please give us your source otherwise it appears to me your diatribe looks as though it is copied and pasted.

  9. Elias Mastawal
    | #9

    An almost unbearably poignanent and uplifting tract with a wealth of nunanced political analysis of the current situation in Ethiopia. This is not quite a typical rant that tells very little about the sinister side of the TPLF. No doubt it is the most fearsome force the country has ever seen since at the helm power in May 1991.However, what is troubling me is: the crucial role played by the non-Tigryans “intellectual functional groups” in collusion with TPLF for years. And above all, the immense scope of diaspora failure become recently more evident in their going war among themselves in the church,community center. One only hopes that Ethiopians come to their senses and fight off tooth and nail the monster that brought the country to these degrading level. To this, I add my bleating voice for a fight.Our silience means our death as as a nation,period.

  10. aha!
    | #10

    Although I agree to your perception as regards to the scramble for Ethiopia in terms of assertion, “The reason for Eritrean uprising is thus obvious: it was a renewed scramble for Ethiopia a reconstitution of the Italian invasion by natives”. I also agree the revolutionary of Marxsism and Leninism was not a grass root movement supported by the masses. I disagree that all the elites in the factions mentioned have the same agenda of liberating and empowering of the people, even though the revolution was conducted by the elites into two camps: one by TPLF and/EPLF in terms of oppression of nations and nationalities against the regimes in the past and the Derg regime and the other for class struggle in terms of class struggle for land reform and workers rights against the previous regime and the Military Dictatorship of the Derg regime, where the former of ex-liberations spearheaded by TPLF, created a constitution of ethnic federalism instead of state federalism of original provinces including Eritrea.

    I also believe the revolution was conducted by the elites on behalf of the masses without grass root movements from the masses for either of the above two scenarios, but the derailment of the cause for “liberating and empowerment of the masses could not be substantiated in terms of the current frame work of the constitution built into it the ideologies of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism, built into it.

    In the context of the constitution, I have a different take on the notion of “scramble for Ethiopia”, internally, by way of the three ideologies of ethnic federalism, secessionism and totaliarinism built into the constitution, as a prelude to secessionism, future to boundary conflicts, now the expulsion of the Amara ethnic group from other regions as opposed to scramble for Ethiopia by foreign corporations and/or countries as portrayed by Yilma Bekele, which I portray as supper imposed exploitation, political, economic strangle hold of country’s resources by TPLF, TPLF/EFFORT, TPLF affiliated enterprises, cadres and foreign corporations to that of ethnic federalism, secessionism a division of Ethiopian land mass by major ethnic groups with ethnic agenda and totaliarinism in a scramble for Ethiopia, which combines both of my perception and that of Yilma Bekele, which hinges around those points of the scramble of the scramble for Ethiopia by the negative forces of disintegration with ethnic agenda and the upperimposed exploitations by TPLF, TPLF/EFFORT, cadres and foreign corporations to say the least about corruptions exercises by these enterprises.

  11. Dawi
    | #11

    [[..in analyzing the Eritrean case, Yosief barely refers to the usual motive for the uprising, namely, the national oppression by the Amhara. Instead he focusses on the impact of Italian colonization..]]

    Yosef is the Bomb! :-) He trashes Isayas/Shaebia to the bone. He considers Shaebia’s army to be same with Italian Colonial army invaders; they are both void of what he calls “habesha” culture.

    My question is can Yosef do same with Meles/EPRDF using the same measurements?

    I don’t think so. Just like the many oppositon groups he will have a hard time trying to prove that. You see, unlike Isayas, Meles continued to reinvent himself.

    Yes, the federal arrangement recognizes ethno-linguistics differences but that will not stop Meles’s anti poverty developmental vision from creating a common national purpose among the diverse folks. The grand Melinium Dam or Meles Zenawi’s Dam as Prof. Al calls it,is an example of a common purpose for country.

    Frankly, unless opposition quickly comes up with a common purpose that is somewhat close to EPRDF’s “anti poverty”, “grand GTP”, “developmental” etc.; it shall remain at a dead end.

  12. ድህና ጉርሻ?
    | #12

    ይህንን ጎሳ በሉት ዘር መሰረት ያደረገ ፓለቲካ ትንተና ይቁም ካለበሊዚያ አያቆምም
    የድሮዎቹንኮ የምንወቅሳቸውኮ የመሪዎቹ ደብዳቤ እንደሚይሳየው
    እኛ ክርስትያኖቹን አረመኔዎች ያልሰለጠኑት ሎሎቹ ዜጎች ከሚሰረንዝንቡን ጥቃት ለመከላከል መሳሪያ ስጡን ብለው ነው ከምዕራቡ የሚጠይቁት
    ይህንኑ አባባልና ልመና እየደገምን መሳሪያ ዕውቅና ከምዕራቡ መጠየቅ ታሪክ ራሱን ይደግማል ማለት ይሄ ነው
    ሁሉም አገሩን ይወዳል ሁሉም አገሩ ናትና ይሄንን ትንታኔ ወደ ዛ በሉት
    የአገር ጥቅም ማስተማር የምሁሩ ፋንታ ነው! መስዋዕት መክፈል ተማሩ !
    ማንነቱን ለፈርንጅ ጨርቅና ከረባት አስተሳሰር ክብር በመስጠት ያገሩን ባህልና ምርት በመናቅና የትምህርት ሹመት እውቅና ሲል ለአገሩ ባህል ያልተዋጋውኮ ራስ ምሁሩ ነው
    አሁንም የብዙዎች ምሁርና ሃብታም ልጆች ያገራቸውን ሙዚቃ ከመስማት የፈረንጁን ሲያደንቅ ይታያል የራሱን ቃንቃ ሳያከብር ስለሌላው መናገር ምን ይጠቅማል

    የስልጣን ፍንቀላ የሞከሩት ስልጣን ይገባኛል እያሉ ንጉሱን ለመጣል የሞከሩት እስቲ የዘርና ጎሳ ግንዳቸው ለምን አንመለከትም
    እውነት ለአገርና ሕዝብ ፍቅር ካላቸው ለምን ኦርቶዶክስ ትምህርት በደቡብና በኦሮሚያ አካባቢ አላስፋፉም
    የእስላሙም ሆነ ኦርቶዶክሱም መሪዎች ብንመለከት ከመንግስት ጋር ተስማምተው ሲኖሩ እንጂ
    በደል ሲዋጉ አይታወቁም ትምህርቱን ሲያስፋፉ አይታወቁም
    ይህ ሹመት ፈላጊና ሹመት እንጂ ሃላፊነት የማያውቅ አመራር አብሮ ቢከስም ብዙም የሚደንቅ አይደለም
    ካቶሊኩና ፕሮቴስታንቱ ወጣቶች ሲመለምሉ ትምህርት ቤት በገጠሩ ሲያቃቁሙ የቀሩት ምነው በመንግስት ባጀት ብቻ ነበር የሚንቀሳቀሱት ስለዚህም ኦርቶዶክስና እስላሙ ሃይማኖት ትምህርቱና ምልመላውን ከመስራት ይልቅ በቀሩት ሃይማኖቶትች ላይ ኔጌትቭ ካምፔይን ላይ ተወስነው ነበር

  13. ጉረኞች
    | #13

    “My question is can Yosef do same with Meles/EPRDF using the same measurements? ”
    Yes, he can. Actually, the majority of Ethiopians feel colonized more than oppressed. Of course, other than the colonizers.

  14. Dawi
    | #14

    [[.. unless opposition quickly comes up with a common purpose that is somewhat close to EPRDF’s “anti poverty”...]]

    IMO, opposition should fully embrace all the “COMMON PURPOSE” goals of EPRDF. Why not steal it from them if it can.

    Steal the whole Enchilada from EPRDF; GTP, the Millennium Dam, all infrastructure roads, rail, telecoms etc. and the associated anti-poverty wars. While doing that continue to talk and denounce the human rights records of the government. And denounce them for making our country land locked and work on a way to change that.

  15. aha!
    | #15

    Dawi ! despite your futile comparative analysis based on Esayas’s and Meles’s leadership quality, where both work against individual freedom, Ethiopian Nationalism, territorial integrity and the sovereignty of Ethiopia. However, I commend you for your inadvertent assertion that the opposition need to “come up with a common purpose that is close to EPRDF’s anti-poverty program”, has nothing to do with the common goal/national agenda for unity, territorial integrity, sovereignty of Ethiopia and Ethiopians, where the last item refers to individual freedom, liberty and equality precede ethnic and secessionist rights. The opposition parties unless you are talking of the diminished loyalist opposition parties are not in the parliament to propose alternative Millelenium Development Project despite its futility. What you may have said that I have been saying all along the opposition parties and/or factions need to unite over the goals for unity, territorial integrity, sovereignty of Ethiopia and Ethiopians, which in direct contrast to TPLF/eprdf constitution and coalition of alignment of parties along ethnic agenda rather than national agenda for Ethiopia to exist as one nation, one flag, one Official language and religion with all other religions and ethnic groups living in harmony among each other by resorting to original provincial boundaries with assorted ethnic groups in each of them.

  16. Dawi
    | #16

    [[“My question is can Yosef do same with Meles/EPRDF using the same measurements? ”
    Yes, he can. Actually, the majority of Ethiopians feel colonized more than oppressed. Of course, other than the colonizers.]]

    ጉረኞች

    It is hard to prove; saying the “majority”? is a hard sell too.

    Look at the new OPF with Leenco Leta; they want to “…aspire to build on the positive aspects of Ethiopia’s current federal set-up..”. What does that tell you??

    However, I agree Meles ceding part of country by signing Eritrea off to Colonial Army of Shaebia – can be considered to be a crime.

    Then again as “the world class intellect” per Susan Rice, he embarked on our main enemy “POVERTY” while focusing on that, dreamed of Ethiopian Renaissance started building the Millennium Bomb..oops I mean Dam!, Drones to watch over it, Satellite communications etc.; An overall 2nd to none military power in the region, with a modest budget as we saw on the Military Day show.

    We can draw parallel to Menelik’s Ethiopia; some consider him to be a “colonizer”; He defeated the Italian colonial army but, signed off Eritrea as a “protectorate”; started modernizing county, to build a strong nation to prepare & fight the next battle.

  17. Dawi
    | #17

    [[…the goals for unity, territorial integrity, sovereignty of Ethiopia and Ethiopians, which in direct contrast to TPLF/eprdf constitution….]]

    aha! – I don’t think it is necessary to be in a “direct contrast” in all things; may be just in few things.

    As I mentioned before the new OPF of Leenco Leta is in the right direction; they want to “…aspire to build on the positive aspects of Ethiopia’s current federal set-up..”

    Off course Leenco was in the formation of it before he run away however, today’s old OLF leader is in “… a new phase in the Oromo nationalist struggle with the objective of working for the transformation of the Ethiopian state into a truly democratic multinational federation equitably owned by all the nations..”

    “Democratic multinational federation equitably owned” is the key and it jives with your thoughts – I think.

  18. ጉረኞች
    | #18

    Dawi
    Geographic federalism seems to work much better than ethnic federalism which breeds conflict and instability. The recent saga of Amara tribe should illustrate the danger of ethnic federalism to those who have been naive so far.
    We recently learned the Ethiopian share of renaissance “bomb” is much less than what it deserves as woyane sold the largest one to foreign investor. Woyane has to be transparent if they want us to believe otherwise. Experience tells us they won’t open the book to the public.
    It is hard to draw parallel between Meles who deliberately and willingly committed treason and Menelik who was forced to give away to the enemy with superior by power.

  19. Dawi
    | #19

    “We recently learned….. woyane sold the largest one to foreign investor”

    Where did you read that? I am interested to know. My take is it will be good if Egypt, N/S Sudan invest on the renaissance dam because they will buy the product without hesitation as they become minority owners. That should also lessen tensions and build trust among the countries.

    What do we expect to see if they open their books? If anything we may learn they don’t have enough money yet & we need to raise more.

    What are you talking about? Shaebia would have given Woyane a run for their money if Woyane tried to take over Eritrea. Seye and others would probably had done that if they thought taking Shaebia was a cake walk.

    They have done it later by paying a high price but Meles stopped it.That is his “treaon” if you ask me.

  20. ጉረኞች
    | #20

    Dawi
    Don’t pretend you have not seen this yet. If you have not, you have been a slacker!!
    http://www.goolgule.com/abay-dam-not-ethiopias/

  21. aha!
    | #21

    Dawi! You put in parenthesis, “Democratic multinational federation equitably owned”, as if I said it, perhaps referring to the 80 ethnic groups with well defined boundaries, which I never suggested and does not exist under the present ethnic federalism. What I may have in the past suggested was “State federalism” of the original provinces with various ethnic groups in each one of them with idea of developing the country along ecological zones cutting across provinces and ethnic groups as pragmatic solution than dividing Ethiopian landmass into four major ethnic groups and five more zones with conglomerates of ethnic groups by ratifying the constitution with respect to Article 2, the flag, Article 46, ethnic federalism, Article 39 (1) ethnic secessionism, article 8, the sovereignty of Ethiopia and individual rights to super cede ethnic and secessionist rights.

  22. Dawi
    | #22

    aha,

    “Ecological zones” Sounds coolto me. Original provinces were fine too, if people prefer to go back to that.

    That can be done after the present government led developmental stage is wined down; our basic needs are met etc. One can introduce some legislation to ask the people and the people shall decide if re-drawing of state boundaries is what they want to do.

    ጉረኞች – I read it but, how credible is such article? They are saying unknown diplomat told them? If it is a “sovereign fund” of some European country, why would they risk it by buying Millennium Bond of 51% under the table? That is a lot of money to lose – say if the next Ethiopian legislators refuse to recognize the under the table deal. So I don’t think it is a credible article.

  23. ጉረኞች
    | #23

    Well Dawi, it is your right not to believe. It is ironic though,… you are ready to believe the most corrupt and incompetent Tigre officials but not independent reporting of their crime.

  24. ጉረኞች
    | #24

    Dawi
    Your response to Aha on #22 is funny. If at all, it only shows you are living somewhere in ivory tower. Ethiopia under woyane is a lowless country. Woyane doesn’t even respect its own laws let alone formally introducing bills to change laws. Do you think people forget what joke they make out of the law when they are throwing anybody who voiced against their injustice go to jail for their fake terrorism charge with laughable witnesses and no evidence. They are ruling with the jungle law.

  25. ግሩም
    | #25

    @ Dawi,ጉረኞች

    ኢትዮጵያውን ሁሉ ይህንን የሚከተለውን ጉድ አንብቡት፡፡

    http://www.zehabesha.com/amharic/archives/2271

    This is what the current Ethiopia after the rule of so called Dawi’s Meles (Developmental-State Architect) looks like. This is his corrupt legacy we have now inherited after 22 years of blatant racism, economic looting and mercenary and stooge client-regime neo-colonial governance style. This is how a systemically and morally corrupt and failed society and state eventually looks like as a result of such irresponsible governance. This is what I have already called it Systemic Generational Crisis (አጠቃላይ የትውልድ ዝቅጠት).አንድ ዜጋ እንደ ዜጋ አንድ ማህበረሰብ እንደ ማህበረሰብ አንድ ህዝብ እንደ ህዝብ አንድ ሀገር እንደ ሀገር ሲኮላሽ ሲዘቅጥ ሲዝረከረክ ሲበላሽ ሲሻግት ሲያረጅና ሲፍረከረክ ይህንን ይመስላል፡፡እንደ ወያኔ አይነት ሃላፊነት የማይሰማቸው ዘረኛ ዘራፊና ቅጥረኞች ማለትም አጠቃላይ በሽተኞች(Psychopaths or Sociopaths) ስልጣን ላይ ሲወጡ ይህ አይነት ሃላፊነት የማይሰማውና በሁለት እግሩ ለመቆም የማይችል በሽተኛ ዜጋ በሽተኛ ማህበረሰብ በሽተኛ ህዝብ በሽተኛ ሀገር እና በስተመጨረሻም በሽተኛ ታሪክ ወይንም የታሪክ ክሽፈት ይፈጠራል፡፡በሽተኛ ዜጋ በሽተኛ ማህበረሰብ በሽተኛ ህዝብ በሽተኛ ሀገር ሲፈጠር ድግሞ ጋዜጠኛው ተመስገን ደሳለኝ የገለፀው አይነት የዞምቢዎች(Zombies) ሀገር ይፈጠራል ማለት ነው፡፡ጥቂት ሀገር በቀልና አለም አቀፍ ልሂቃን ብዙሃኑን ህዝብ እንደፈለጋቸው ረግጠው ዘርፈው አጎሳቁለውና በስተመጨረሻም ከቻሉም የሰውን ልጅ ከፈጣሪው አለያይተውና አጣልተውና እንዲክድም አድርገው በስተመጨረሻ የራሳቸው ፍፁም ጥገኛ አድርገውና እራሳቸውን እንደ ፈጣሪ የሚያመልክ ማህበረሰብ ለመፍጠር የሚችሉት በዚህ መንገድ ተገቢው ንቃተ-ህሊና የሌለው ህሊና-አልባ ነፍስ-አልባና መንፈስ-አልባ ዞምቢዎችን(Zombies) በመፈልፈል ነው፡፡እውን ወያኔ ዘወትር የሚያላዝንብን የሁለት አሃዝ የኢኮኖሚ እድገታችንና የስልጣኔያችን መገለጫው ይህ ነው ማለት ነው?Such scenario is the ultimate manifestation of the pervasive moral decadence of our corrupt governance and eventually the ensuing corrupt society. አንድ ዜጋ እንደ ዜጋ አንድ ማህበረሰብ እንደ ማህበረሰብ አንድ ህዝብ እንደ ህዝብ አንድ ሀገር እንደ ሀገር ሲኮላሽ ሲዘቅጥ ሲዝረከረክ ሲበላሽ ሲሻግት ሲያረጅና ሲፍረከረክ ደግሞ ውጤቱ የሚሆነው እራስን በቅጡ ለመከላከል የማይችልና ቀጥተኛና ተዘዋዋሪ ለሆነ ለውጭ ባእዳን ወረራ ብዝበዛና ጥቃት በርን ወለል አድርጎ ማዘጋጀት ነው፡፡የወያኔዎች የቅጥረኝነት የመጨረሻ ግብ ደግሞ ይህ ነው፡፡Yes this is how Scramble is successfully implemented now days under the pervasive Global-Social order of Global Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects. As ጉረኞች Said it precisely to the point already “Actually, the majority of Ethiopians feel colonized more than oppressed. Of course, other than the colonizers.” now what remains next is to bring the issue to the light of consciousness more than mere feelings.
    God Bless Ethiopia !!!

  26. ጉረኞች
    | #26

    ግሩም
    Woyane is a dysfunctional government. No doubt. What holds it together is a mystery.

  27. Dawi
    | #27

    ግሩም

    [[..This is what the current Ethiopia after the rule of so called Dawi’s Meles (Developmental-State Architect) looks like...]]

    A couple of months ago the following was written on NEW YORK DAILY NEWS. According to ግሩም we should call it “Systemic Generational Crisis (አጠቃላይ የትውልድ ዝቅጠት).አንድ ዜጋ እንደ ዜጋ አንድ ማህበረሰብ እንደ ማህበረሰብ አንድ ህዝብ እንደ ህዝብ አንድ ሀገር እንደ ሀገር ሲኮላሽ ሲዘቅጥ ሲዝረከረክ ሲበላሽ ሲሻግት ሲያረጅና ሲፍረከረክ ይህንን ይመስላል፡፡”

    City fails to do right by victim of malpractice at Kings County Hospital.

    [[...She will go to her grave as a 41-year-old woman who likely would have survived if hospital staff had upheld basic treatment protocols.

    They failed, and so Wilkinson is dying, and so her devotion to the well-being of young Micalia will end. As definitely as there is bedrock below New York, this mother and daughter are victims of crude negligence by medical personnel in the city government’s employ...]]

    http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/owed-article-1.1275392

  28. ግሩም
    | #28

    How do you compare and contrast the two?
    The medical scenario you mentioned in NY is quite different to what happened in Addis.

    1)How you compare medical treatment of ordinary labor of a pregnant women(emergency) with an already cancer stricken woman already living with it? I think from the point of view of professional ethics it is a bit different. How do you compare emergency case that is visible like a laboring pregnant women with that of cancer stricken one?

    2) Do those nurses and doctors in NY do watch Drama TV like ሰው ለሰው under such critical emergency cases of a pregnant women waiting for medical help and who is suffering under labor? I do not think so. The scenario in Addis is not only a manifestation of ‘acceptable’ professional incompetence but also more than that such a typical manifestation of such a sheer lack of morality and humanity which is totally unacceptable with no excuses.

    3) Leaving the professional ethics alone, how are the families of the dead woman treated all the way through the process even tragically after her death. I mean based on normally expected humanitarianism.

    4) Legally is it acceptable to manipulate the young girl of the dead mother, aged less than 18 years, in to signing such medical commitments or obligations?

    5)It is because your boss Meles has sold out Electric power to Djibouti and Sudan(Mainly because we have been doomed to be Portless by his own Anti-Ethiopian arrogance and ignorance so that he desperately needs to appease these countries for port Service) that we are doomed in to shortage of Electric power with the ensuing tragic scenario of the elevator malfunction mentioned in the hospital. Rather than sell out priority should have been given first for local consumption.

    6)what makes both scenarios in NY and Addis the same is that the evolving inner workings of Global Capitalism based on its modern day Neo-Liberalism, has deprived the global poor mass of benefiting Welfare-State economic advantages to the extent that basic human needs for the majority mass like basic Medicare, basic education, basic nutrition etc are severely deteriorating. That is why I said before that capitalism does not have a benevolent human heart for sympathy. Primarily Profit driven system as its meta-governing rule, Capital Money-Accumulation through Capital Money-Sequencing, eventually looks like this. In such inhuman system human value, social value and nature value is worthless.
    Here i want you to compare and contrast the late Hugo-Chavez of Venezuela to that of late Meles. The two are quite opposite personalities in that Hugo-Chavez audaciously opposed and fought Global-Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects(Global Dominance and Global scramble) while to the contrary Meles was its staunch supporter as a loyal stooge Client-Regime of the West. Hugo-Chavez as a good and staunch exemplary of 21st century Socialism and its inherent Welfare-State, delivered his lower class poor peoples basic human needs like basic Medicare, basic education, basic nutrition etc so that such type of tragedy of moral decadence shall not happen. I tell you frankly that Meles does not as such have his own version of Legacy except that his legacy is his being a staunch stooge client-regime of Global-Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects. And when his followers say “we persevere or sustain his legacy” knowingly or unknowingly they are asserting that Global-Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects(Global Dominance and Global Scramble) shall also continue in Ethiopia.
    For better Medicare we need to be so human and hence Welfare-State rather than “profit-driven system” is mandatory so that such tragedy and moral decadence shall not take place. Those bosses in the regime you support are so corrupt and wealthy and they are privileged to get Medicare abroad like in Bankok, the West and others and hence they have not established such a good dependable Medicare system locally for the rest poor majority mass to the extent that let alone cancer treatment normal delivery of pregnant women ends-up like this. We are not talking about cancer treatment here we are talking about delivery of pregnant woman. Here we are not even talking about the professional competency (related to our economic growth and Developmental-State) of the our Medicare system but more than that about the humanitarianism, morality and ethics required for the treatment of the delivery of pregnant woman under extensive labor.

    Finally I want you to compare and contrast the late Hugo-Chavez of Venezuela to that of late Meles and also the global social order of Global Capitalism based on the following reference.

    http://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2013/03/12/hugo-chavez-paul-craig-roberts-4/

    http://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2013/03/06/how-deregulation-resurrected-american-economic-insecurity-paul-craig-roberts/

    Regards

  29. ግሩም
    | #29

    @ Dawi

    How do you compare and contrast the two?
    The medical scenario you mentioned in NY is quite different to what happened in Addis.

    1)How you compare medical treatment of ordinary labor of a pregnant women(emergency) with an already cancer stricken woman already living with it? I think from the point of view of professional ethics it is a bit different. How do you compare emergency case that is visible like a laboring pregnant women with that of cancer stricken one?

    2) Do those nurses and doctors in NY do watch Drama TV like ሰው ለሰው under such critical emergency cases of a pregnant women waiting for medical help and who is suffering under labor? I do not think so. The scenario in Addis is not only a manifestation of ‘acceptable’ professional incompetence but also more than that such a typical manifestation of such a sheer lack of morality and humanity which is totally unacceptable with no excuses.

    3) Leaving the professional ethics alone, how are the families of the dead woman treated all the way through the process even tragically after her death. I mean based on normally expected humanitarianism.

    4) Legally is it acceptable to manipulate the young girl of the dead mother, aged less than 18 years, in to signing such medical commitments or obligations?

    5)It is because your boss Meles has sold out Electric power to Djibouti and Sudan(Mainly because we have been doomed to be Portless by his own Anti-Ethiopian arrogance and ignorance so that he desperately needs to appease these countries for port Service) that we are doomed in to shortage of Electric power with the ensuing tragic scenario of the elevator malfunction mentioned in the hospital. Rather than sell out priority should have been given first for local consumption.

    6)what makes both scenarios in NY and Addis the same is that the evolving inner workings of Global Capitalism based on its modern day Neo-Liberalism, has deprived the global poor mass of benefiting Welfare-State economic advantages to the extent that basic human needs for the majority mass like basic Medicare, basic education, basic nutrition etc are severely deteriorating. That is why I said before that capitalism does not have a benevolent human heart for sympathy. Primarily Profit driven system as its meta-governing rule, Capital Money-Accumulation through Capital Money-Sequencing, eventually looks like this. In such inhuman system human value, social value and nature value is worthless.
    Here i want you to compare and contrast the late Hugo-Chavez of Venezuela to that of late Meles. The two are quite opposite personalities in that Hugo-Chavez audaciously opposed and fought Global-Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects(Global Dominance and Global scramble) while to the contrary Meles was its staunch supporter as a loyal stooge Client-Regime of the West. Hugo-Chavez as a good and staunch exemplary of 21st century Socialism and its inherent Welfare-State, delivered his lower class poor peoples basic human needs like basic Medicare, basic education, basic nutrition etc so that such type of tragedy of moral decadence shall not happen. I tell you frankly that Meles does not as such have his own version of Legacy except that his legacy is his being a staunch stooge client-regime of Global-Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects. And when his followers say “we persevere or sustain his legacy” knowingly or unknowingly they are asserting that Global-Capitalism and its Neo-Liberal and Neo-Colonialism Imperialistic Projects(Global Dominance and Global Scramble) shall also continue in Ethiopia.
    For better Medicare we need to be so human and hence Welfare-State rather than “profit-driven system” is mandatory so that such tragedy and moral decadence shall not take place. Those bosses in the regime you support are so corrupt and wealthy and they are privileged to get Medicare abroad like in Bankok, the West and others and hence they have not established such a good dependable Medicare system locally for the rest poor majority mass to the extent that let alone cancer treatment normal delivery of pregnant women ends-up like this. We are not talking about cancer treatment here we are talking about delivery of pregnant woman. Here we are not even talking about the professional competency (related to our economic growth and Developmental-State) of the our Medicare system but more than that about the humanitarianism, morality and ethics required for the treatment of the delivery of pregnant woman under extensive labor.

    Finally I want you to compare and contrast the late Hugo-Chavez of Venezuela to that of late Meles and also the global social order of Global Capitalism based on the following reference.

    http://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2013/03/12/hugo-chavez-paul-craig-roberts-4/

    http://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2013/03/06/how-deregulation-resurrected-american-economic-insecurity-paul-craig-roberts/

    Regards

  30. Dawi
    | #30

    ግሩም:

    [[..How do you compare and contrast the two?
    The medical scenario you mentioned in NY is quite different to what happened in Addis...]]

    Your rush to judgment without hearing the defendants side of Addis is reprehensible.

    Be that as it may, the malpractice was similar in my eyes. At least the one I sighted has gone through evaluation and some settlements.

    Hugo was sitting in millions of barrels of oil while Meles was tackling abject poverty without a drop of oil. It takes a lot of brain matter to do what Meles did. And making us one of the fastest growing economy is far out.

    However, your take on “…inner workings of Global Capitalism based on its modern day Neo-Liberalism, has deprived the global poor..’ has merits and I will look into it and read the references you provided.

    Cheers!!

  31. ጉረኞች
    | #31

    Dawi
    You can draw parallel on anything under the sky. I can even find an aborigines who just like you or Meles, and claim that you two from Adwa share some traits with them. Finding parallel from somewhere doesn’t make it right. The fact is the country Ethiopia is currently governed by incompetent and corrupt groups of people from Tigre tribe. Whatever malfunction there was they even make it worst.

  32. በደህና?
    | #32

    ግሩም ለመጻፍ ዳዊት መድገም መደጋገም ያስፈልጋል እንዴ ወይስ ለጉራ ስትል ነው?

  33. በደህና?
    | #33

    ዳዊት መደጋገሙ ግሩም ነው ወይስ ለጉራ ስትል ነው?

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