Commentary: The Democratization Struggle of Ethiopia By Dubale Tariku

March 7th, 2016 Print Print Email Email

As a result of the popular unrest engulfed the Oromia kilil, it appears an interesting debate resurfaced among Ethiopian intellectuals of late. The long held consensus among the mainstream intellectuals that TPLF instituted ethnic based politics disintegrates the country, deprives the citizens to exercise individual freedom, restricts citizens movements to enclosed ethnic enclave, and encourages ethnic discrimination is challenged. What makes the current debate interesting is that it didn’t come from the usual quarter of ill wishers of Ethiopia. It came from good wishing intellectuals, notably Dr. Messay Kebede and Dr. Minga Negash (Unity Overrides Everything! – Messay Kebede January 20, 2016; Ethiopia Understanding the current protests in Ethiopia: A rejoinder By Minga Negash, February 24, 2016). In their articles the two advocated to consider ethnic based resistance as means of democratizing Ethiopia. We now found ourselves back to square one, the ways and means to create a just and fair society in Ethiopia have not drawn consensus among intellectuals.

Dr. Messay argued that ethnicity is already institutionalized in the last twenty-five years and will be difficult to go back to the ‘liberal’ type democratic systems. While, Dr. Minga argued that ethnic parties can serve as one of the civic-like institutions for safe guarding democracy as in liberal democracy civic institutions. Neither of them explained in any detail what mechanism will be implemented to shape the state of Ethiopia, if the country decided to institutionalize ethnic based administration. Without a suggested mechanism to democratically implement the recommendation, peaceful coexistence can only be assumed not assured. Drs Messay and Minga grossly underestimated the transformative power of democratic process. Both have ignored the fact that the current structural systems is a consequence of dictatorship not a process of democratization. They also ignored the fact that the Ethiopians struggle is not limited to removing TPLF but also includes removing the destructive institutions TPLF created to subvert democracy.

Ethiopia is a country with over 80 ethnic groups in varying population sizes and geographic settlements. To create the current ethnic administrative kilil, it has taken the brutal dictatorship of TPLF that would not have been created in democratic process. Without their consents, some ethnic groups have been lumped together and others have been split. To make the matter worst, resources have been unfairly divided among the killils. When ethnic killil have been created, a time bomb has been planted. By embracing the process that planted the time bomb and keeping the ethnic administrative structure that keeps the time bomb ticking will even more threatens the existence of Ethiopia.

Modern democracy has been around for long time. We should not be confused what democracy is and what it is not. Similarly, we know what democratic countries have accomplished and could accomplish. For properly functioning democracy, free civil institutions, the rule of law and democratic government are essential ingredients. All these institutions are grounded on individual rights. A step out of these principles, a democratic system simply ceases to exist and function. What Drs Messay and Minga offered Ethiopians for choices are false choices among dictatorships of one ethnic group over the other, not a true choice between democracy and dictatorship. Choosing among various dictatorships is far from reaching peaceful coexistence among ethnic groups.

For the very few who have access to the Internet, it is easy to notice that the Ethiopian social media has been manipulated by the few who mastered to exaggerate and deceive segment of population with less information supply. The few fanatics who dominated the social media solicited public support with multi-tiered of falsehood and coordinated deceit. Even the learned citizens are victims of misinformation. To counter this misinformation, the public has to liberate itself from manipulation and perversion. The capacity of various independent media outlets for collecting information from the ground is yet to be developed. The mobilization of ethnicity for taking social and political action has been effective among few ethnic groups. By any imagination, these few incidences should not have president to turn the struggle to democratize Ethiopia to different direction.

From the experience of other countries who established long term peace, the lessons to learn is that the long process of educating and rousing the public to the truth will provide the people knowledge of the true liberty and expose the myths and illusions spread by ethnic demagogues. Ethiopians should not forget, for a moment, the timelessness of liberal democracy and espouse to create institutions that protect the rights of all citizens and make them available for future generations of Ethiopia. At this critical period, what Ethiopians need is far-sighted leaders who will deliver the country from TPLF evil hands.


  1. Kiros Wedi Haile
    | #1

    It is time one has to accept at this juncture that Oromo’s will take a step to determine their own destiny. People remembered vividly how the Oromos valiantly thwarted the invader TPLF in 1991. While the
    placid Amaras who used Oromos in the past to fought every battle on behalf of them, in contrast, were tumultuously welcoming this deadly enemy as the lost “Habisha brethren” in Finfine. Leave Professor Massey Kebede alone for telling the stark reality regarding the future of Ethiopia.

  2. Dawi
    | #2

    Dubale said:

    [[..Ethiopians should not forget, for a moment, the timelessness of liberal democracy …]]

    The paramount question then is for one to define “liberal democracy” and seek a feasible path to it?

    When a country is going through a civil conflict or has an inside pressure intensifying, how does “liberal democracy” resolve this conflicts today? That is what is going on in our country today.

    Comparative historical studies show a different story.

    “..Almost all the advanced economies of the world, including the United States, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, etc., and also almost all the emerging economies in contemporary world, made their initial take-off and fastest growth under non-democracy, or at least not under the kind of democracy we have in mind today. This view can be stretched as far as stating that “dictatorships are needed to generate development” …”

  3. Getaw
    | #3

    Why are you being ashamed to be an Oromo? You are using Tigre name to make the most idiotic comment.

  4. Ethoash
    | #4

    El Niño’s links with drought in southern Africa and the Horn, and with heavy rains in East Africa, are well-established.The Shebelle river basin and the easternmost Somali region are particular areas of concern,


    How is it Kenya , Sudan , Eritrea , Djibouti and the rest of El-Nino affected African countries are feeding their people during El-nino while Ethiopia IS NOT? IS IT BECAUSE THERE WAS NO PREPARATION MADE UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE IN ETHIOPIA FOR THE DROUGHT?. Poor rains have hit parts of Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan and Somalia — but international media coverage has tended to focus on Ethiopia. In part that’s because a lazy connection gets drawn with the 1984 famine,.
    . The UN believes 15 million people will face food shortages in 2016, with the next harvest not expected until June. Ethiopia has a population of close to 100 million.

    Meanwhile, heavy rains and flooding are predicted for Ethiopia’s low lying south and east. The Shebelle river basin and the easternmost Somali region are particular areas of concern, with flooding projected to affect 315 000 people. Flooding not only displaces people, but destroys infrastructure — washing away roads and bridges, affecting market access, and inundating schools and clinics.

    Somalia experiences the same dual risks of drought and flooding — in a country characterised by some of the worst humanitarian and human development indicators in the world. Drought has singed the northern regions of Somaliland and Puntland, while heavy rains in the south and centre of the country have caused floods that Ocha estimates could affect some 900 000 people.
    Heavy rains can also trigger waterborne diseases like cholera and typhoid. Livestock become susceptible to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) — a viral mosquito-borne disease.

    El Niño conditions coupled with the warming of the Indian Ocean along the East African coastline is generating “highly enhanced rainfall”, according to the Kenya Metrological Department. The SOMALIA government’s contingency plan anticipated one million people at risk from flooding. The plan calls for the provision of relief seeds for replanting and subsidised fertiliser, as well as large-scale vaccination against RVF.

    In Uganda, the government has called on 800 000 people regarded as at risk from landslides in mountainous regions to relocate to safer areas, where they will be supported with relief supplies. A 2 000-strong “Civil-Military Disaster Response Group” has been deployed to the Mount Elgon and Mount Rwenzori regions, as well as flood-prone areas in eastern, southwestern and western Uganda.

  5. Tizita
    | #5

    Your argument is frivolous. You said that “the Oromos valiantly thwarted the invader TPLF in 1991.” For your information, the Oromos leadr, the OLF was the one who helped the TPLF to grip the power. As soon as the OLF held higher positions in 1992, the OLF’s cadres killed innumerable Amaras in the Oromo region. Now you seemed you are justified the TPLF hidden agenda. Your Professor, Messay has been advocating language based federalism which he agrees with TPLF. He recently changed his tone on TPLF that pleaded with Amaras to support the Oromos’ students protests. There is no problem with his emotional appeal to Amaras if he fair. You know Ato Kiros, You like or not, Oromo can not win the TPLF without Amara participation, beceause the Amara’s land is very strategic. it is a pratical that if Oromo wants to attack the TPLF, the Amara presention is very essential, and it will happen soon. Do not forget, the TPLF’s “divid and rule” is temporary, the two large ethncities, the Oromo and Amara rapport will come back soon. Why you and your likes become anti Amara. You can call me Nefitegna, or whatever you want. Tell to your hero, Messay to be fair on Amaras.

  6. Shmaglae
    | #6

    Yes,dictatorship is badly needed to sort out the craziness going on in Ethiopia. However, it is not ethnocentric dictatorship that I am thinking of -rather it is a nationalist dictator who treats alll citizens equally. That is the only way a nation can be built. All this democracy burahaha is for nought. If we really love our people and country, we have to advocate for human rights of our people under the leadership of well-respected council of statesmen.

  7. Kadiro
    | #7

    I think Mr. Dubale likes are good at generalized rhetoric but short in offering tangible solutions. Liberal democracy advocates need to streamline solutions that address the ongoing problems in Ethiopia. Rejecting ethnic federalism may make us feel good but it does not offer solutions to solve the ensuing problems in Ethiopia. At least, they should openly advocate multiculturalism as an option.

  8. sheffe
    | #8

    so called ethnic federalism is unworkable. tplf imposed ethnic segregation only as a means to an end, to divide and rule. tplf do not care an iota to ethnic freedom, nor did tplf imposed ethnic segregation out of good will to the people.

    tplf know that it cannot survive a day in power without splitting the community ,without causing division among the people, with out spreading hatred one against the other, without inciting violence between ethnic groups etc.
    Tplf need all these as a means for its survival.

    Ethnic federalism/segregation does not mean democracy. it does not embrace democracy as a guiding principle. ethnicity and tribal or race of person are the main considerations to belong to a particular ethnic group. You could be a fascist, communist, or a liberal, conservative or whatever.

    that is why fascist groups like tplf whilst trading in the name of an ethnic group, have isolated themselves from the majority of tigre people and are in a class of their own. for the average tigre person, life has never changed.

    some ethno fascist groups consider that ethnic segregation means democracy. however , replacing one ethnic dictatorship with another wont make any difference. we have seen what olf did in 1991 when they shared power with tplf. this murderous organisation massacred 100s of 1000s before it was eventually kicked out of the country by tplf.

  9. Freedom
    | #9

    Dawi said,

    “..Almost all the advanced economies of the world, including the United States, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, etc., and also almost all the emerging economies in contemporary world, made their initial take-off and fastest growth under non-democracy, or at least not under the kind of democracy we have in mind today. This view can be stretched as far as stating that “dictatorships are needed to generate development”

    You are 100% wrong.
    USA, Japan and Germany did not become a powerful and successful nations until they adapted democracy. USA, the land of the free and home of the brave, was born after defeating the dictatorship rule of England. US constitution drafters did not live any stone un turned, they crossed all the Is and dotted on the Ts, in order to guarantee that DICTATORSHIP of any form did/will not exist in America until the END OF TIME. Consequently, the 229 year old constitution is alive and well and America is not only the #1 nation in the world but also attracts people from all over the world including from dictatorial/communist regime such as CHINA. For your information, next to Mexico, Dictatorial/communist China sends more people to USA. By contrast, except for those who are running business in china, no one is immigrating to china from America.

  10. Merdassa
    | #10

    The ethnic dictatorship of the TPLF is unique and draconian in its nature.It is discriminatory and favours the Tigrayan people amd excludes and marginalizes the rest of us. Anyway the days of this TPLF ethnic dictatorship are numbered and we will shortly miss the TPLF cadres and beneficiaries such as `Dawi`here.

  11. Shmaglae
    | #11

    For underdeveloped countries like ours, what is needed is a nationalist government that treats all citizens equally and concentrates on improving their lives. Once the country becomes self sufficient with food and fairly educated, we can go to the next step of democracy. Only if that happens, democracy will set root and flourish.

  12. aha!
    | #12

    Let me start by saying that I agree with Sheffe at #8 argument about ethnic federalism to which I may add ethnic secessionism/nationalism, totalitarianism and/or developmental state capitalism as an ideology inscribed in the constitution at the pretext of the TPLF manifesto: “leoromow killilih yihnew bilen kesetenew lel minim ayfeligim” has come back to haunt the TPLF/eprdf regime of the peaceful struggle by the opposition Medrek for respect of ethnic rights: the rights to ethnic self-rule and ethnic self-determination based on the division of Ethiopian land mass, which belong to all Ethiopians, demarcated by settlements, languages and (ethnic) identity defining ethnic federalism (art 46). Ethnic federalism has served as a prelude to
    ethnic secessionism/ethnic nationalism (art 39 (1), ethnic, cleansing, future boundary conflicts, etc. and totalitarianism and/or developmental state capitalism denies free market capitalism at least in terms of private ownership of land anywhere in Ethiopia, while ethnic federalism denies individual freedom, liberty and equality to super cede ethnic and secessionist rights. In both cases liberal and/or social democracy could not take a foot hold, since democracy is a rule by the people, for the people and of the people in a people than ethnic oriented government and the path towards that is under Ethiopian Nationalism of Ethiopia as One Nation State, like the United States with multi-ethnic groups as the integral part of Ethiopia.

    -to be ctd.

    -to be continued

  13. Freedom
    | #13

    Ato Tariku is 100% correct.
    Ethiopian Democratization process is a very serious endeavor. It is not for the weak, for the prostitute, for the faint hearted and for the willing slaves like DAWI who worship dictator masters. It is for justice/peace loving free and brave warriors. We ought to aspire for perfection starting with the constitution. The rule of law will run supreme. The strong arm of the law will come down like a ton of brink on those who break it. Dr. Kebede’s attempt to integrate the lawless/criminal/terrorist TPLF and gang into the democratic process leadership is not only insane but also unjust.

  14. Shmaglae
    | #14

    It is insane to compare the illiterate population of Ethiopia to that of USA, Japan and Germany before they adopted democracy. They were way advanced culturally, economically and industrially than Ethiopia is now. So, please do not compare two unrelated stages of development. In fact, what Ethiopia needs is Chinese style of government- certainly not the do-nothing American democracy.

  15. Freedom
    | #15

    Shimaglae said,

    “For underdeveloped countries like ours, what is needed is a nationalist government that treats all citizens equally and concentrates on improving their lives. Once the country becomes self sufficient with food and fairly educated, we can go to the next step of democracy. Only if that happens, democracy will set root and flourish.”

    I let us have a pass for the above outrageous and ridiculous statement since you very very old as your name Shimaglae indicates. You may be suffering from DEMENTIA. Moreover, since people your age, old folks, lived under various Ethiopian dictators starting with Haile Selassie, then Mengistu and now Fascist/criminal slave owning TPLF and company, your are accustomed to servitude and slavish life style. I am talking about the yes my master, at your service my master and I will do anything my master/owner for your mercy and/or acknowledgement type of language you are hard wired to use on a daily basis.
    For starters TPLF and the other regional parties under EPRDF are not nationalist. They are ethicist. Their ethnic interest comes prior to their nationalistic(Ethiopian) interest.
    Second, the current Ethiopian gov does not treat all its people equally. Ethiopian government/TPLF has enslaved, murdered, looted, raped, impoverished, starved the Gambella, Omo river valley and other people in Ethiopia. It has committed ethnic cleansing against a large group of Ethiopians especially in southern regions of ethiopia. It has murdered hundreds and imprisoned thousands of Oromo people. It has taken Amhara lands and gave it to Tigray and used the Amara in those lands as SLAVES.
    The Ethiopian gov had been begging for food to feed its people for the past 25 years. At the current rate of development, the gov will still be begging for food for the next 1000 years.
    The best example of democracy in the world is USA. When it started the democratic form of government after writing the constitution in 1787 and electing the first president in 1789, over 95% of its population were uneducated and very very poor. At that time there was no telephone, radio, TV, internet, car, plane, tractor, fertilizer etc. In other wards, the technological development of the time was primitive. In today Ethiopia, at least 30-40% of the people are educated and have access to variety of technologies including internet, tractor and fertilizers. Therefore todays Ethiopians are in much better educational and economic condition than 18th century Americans when they created democracy. Consequently, your argument that Ethiopia is not ready for democratic transition until the level of education and food security is more developed, it a totally retarded, irrational, stupid argument.

  16. Shmaglae
    | #16

    Read #2 and #6 above before you rant at me.
    If you did not live in Haile Selassie’s time, you are not in a good position as I am to talk about those peaceful years in comparison to the period that followed. And
    Nowhere did I support the current government. Your criticism in regards to that is unwarranted. I advocated for a council of statesmen government,i.e. that is not elected by universal suffrage. Universal suffrage is for moderately educated people. I have lived the better part of life outside Ethiopia and have seen how dishonest politicians get elected by promising everything under the sky in four democratic countries. That is why people have to be educated before democracy is adopted.
    You contend that Ethiopians are better educated now than when USA and Japan were when they started to practice democracy. Maybe for you Ethiopia is only Addis Abeba and that is why the Literacy rate you mentioned is so high. Leave alone the common people, even university graduates are not well read enough to make political assessments. That is the state of our country.

  17. Freedom
    | #17

    Mr. Shmaglae,
    Sorry, I apologize.
    When you said,”what is needed is nationalist government that treats all citizens equally and concentrates on improving their lives.”, I thought you were talking out the current gov. Nevertheless, the fact that you are against the current mafia/criminal gov is great thing.
    Educating people about democracy and constitution is not that complicated. As long as one is able to read and write, about a 6th grade education level, one can participate reasonably well in the democratic process. Once the current gov is kicked out we need to immensely invest in education. Yearly Civic education that will cover democracy/constitution should be mandatory for all Ethiopians starting around age 10. Civic testing to weed out those who are clueless, thus may not be allowed to vote, ought to be considered.
    The council of statesmen/women will only make sense if it is for a short period of time such as up to 6 years. During that time every Ethiopian should get a crash course on civic/democracy/constitution. Afterwards, free and open voting should be the name of the game. Council of statemen/women will recommend voting age and if civic testing is necessary prior to voting. After all, If some Ethiopians fail to fulfill their responsibility of educating themselves about democracy there has to be a consequence such as forfeiting the right to vote.
    Politicians are not the only ones who are dishonest. Dishonest people exist in every profession. Dishonest politicians strive when the moral value system and the rule of law of a society is weak. By promoting good values, such as honesty, integrity, good moral values, selfless service and trustworthiness, we can significantly reduce the # of dishonest people. Christian and Muslim religious education can serve a very crucial role. Moreover, the rule of law has to be robust and punish severely those who break the law. Term limit, such as 2 three or four year term will also cut down on the corruption.
    Lastly, education level of americans in the 18th century was much less than current day ethiopia

  18. Shmaglae
    | #18

    Apology is accepted with grace because it is hard to come by these days.
    In my view, for democracy to work the population of a country has to be well educated and must be familiar with macroeconomics, accompanied with high moral values. Otherwise, democracy won’t flourish and work as expected.
    Literary was a requirement to vote in the early days of USA democracy. I googled it and found out that the literacy rate was in the range of 60%. That did not stop the intellectual fraud committed on the voters. Education of the public doesn’t seem to stop dishonest politicians finding a way to the highest office in the land. USA is a case in point. Right now, the two parties are in the midst electing presidential candidates of their parties. What we are witnessing is a fiasco on our televisions every night. I am not sure democracy is the saviour for our dear country. It may be better to put honest, impartial and successful people into high offices by acclamations by selected citizens in good standing.

  19. Freedom
    | #19

    At Shmaglae,
    You said,
    “In my view, for democracy to work the population of a country has to be well educated and must be familiar with macroeconomics, accompanied with high moral values.”

    When USA formed the democratic form of gov in the late 18th century, .0045% of the white population had a college degree. At that time there was one type of college degree a B.A.(Bachelor of Art). That was the highest level of education in the land of the free and home of the brave. At that time women were only allowed elementary school education, no high school or college. Native Americans and African American Slaves were not allowed even elementary education. College courses were ancient languages, history, theology, mathematics, astronomy and physics. NO ECONOMICS WHATSOEVER. Most popular job for college graduates were Protestant clergymen and Lawyers.
    The first and best ever president of US, George Washington, did not have a formal education. No formal elementary or high school. A tutor thought him mathematics, surveying and reading when he was age 16. Nevertheless, he was a brilliant, humble, honest president. He never wanted to be a president. Knowing how humble, honest, wise and virtuous he was, the American people begged him to become their first president. As they say the rest is history.
    So, formal education is so overrated. The world richest man, Bill Gates, is a college drop out. Many other USA billionaires such as Michael Dell and Mark Zuckerberg are college drop out. The inventor of light bulb, Thomas Edison never had an elementary or high school education. If it wasn’t for the illiterate Thomas Edison we will still be using a candle to do our reading. What is needed is, once one learns how to read and write, he/she needs to continuously educate him/herself.
    By comparison, I believe present day Ethiopia has more than 0.0045% college graduates, not counting those in diaspora. Ethiopians in diaspora perhaps have over 70% college graduation rate. Moreover, compared to no/zero 18th century American with doctorate degree, thousands of Ethiopians have a doctorate degree. In 18th century America there was no public school funded by the government. In all colonies outside of New England, education still remained solely the responsibility of parents. In New England, residents were obligated to fund elementary and high school. But most communities refused due to the high cost. Also, some wanted their kids to help with daily labor of life. Unlike present day USA and maybe Ethiopia, parents were not required to send their children to school. In contrast,in Ethiopia the majority of elementary and high schools are funded by the government.

    You said,
    “Literary was a requirement to vote in the early days of USA democracy”

    It makes sense to make literacy a requirement to vote in Democratic Ethiopia. With literacy, I am talking about civic/rule of law/constitution type of literacy. I will bet my bottom dollar that a significant percentage of Ethiopians with college and doctorate degree will fell the literacy test. Whereas a significant percentage of Ethiopians whose only education is to read and write, but are motivated enough to teach themselves by reading lots of book in the area of democracy, law and constitution, will pass the literacy test.
    In conclusion, Ethiopia is 110% ripe for democratic transition. Once the current criminal/mafia gov is removed, we need to give the new government some time to set up the government. Prior to open voting, there are lots of things the gov ought to do. To list a few.
    1. Write the constitution. Have nationwide debate about the constitution. Mandate every Ethiopian who can read to read the constitution. Implement a constitution that is acceptable to the vast majority all Ethiopians.
    2. Settle the national language issue. My preference is to have two national languages, Amharic and English. Each region can add another language to serve its constituents. For example, a region that has lots of Oromo speakers or Tigria speakers can add oromo or tigrai language respectively for the purpose of education and governing.
    3. Set up non ethnic based regions.
    4. Set up educational laws. Make elementary and high school mandatory to all under 18 years old. Those over 18 should be required and aided by gov to learn to read and write.
    5. Eventually All Ethiopians should be required to learn the constitution, rule of law and vote. Basic testing, to make sure people know the constitution, rule of law and the positions of the political parties competing for power, may be precondition for voting privilege. Those who fail the test will forfeit their right to vote. Rights and responsibilities go together.
    6. Formation of political parties
    7. Recognition of every ethnic group’s contribution to mother Ethiopia. Equally of all ethnic groups. We all should remember that we are all Africans with similar cultures and history. We are children of European colonization living in a region divided by colonial boarders. Those boarders have led us to go to war with each other many many times. Over 99% of our interest, education, job, safety, peace, freedom and ability to chart our own destiny, is the same. Our less than 1% difference is not worth fighting over. After all, ethnicity difference is God’s creation as one can’t choose an ethnicity but is born with one. Our focus should be to complete with people from other nations in Europe, America, Asia and beat them. We like to see made in Ethiopia, invented in Ethiopia products. We should aspire to make Ethiopia the land of invention, innovation, smart people, educated people, generous people, people with a very high moral character and the best overall country in the world.

  20. Freedom
    | #20

    Typo correction. Change the word complete to compete in the sentence below.
    “Our focus should be to complete with people from other nations in Europe, America, Asia and beat them. We like to see made in Ethiopia, invented in Ethiopia products”
    Now to Ato Shimaglae,
    You said,
    “I googled it and found out that the literacy rate was in the range of 60%.”
    As they say the devil is in the detail. Assuming 60% is correct. When you break it down, it is 100% white, over 80% New England and over 99% elementary school education. That is out 60% educated americans, those who are able to read as the statistic did not mention about writing ability, over 99% of them have an elementary school level education, about 1% had secondary school education and 0.0045% tertiary level education. Even though present day Ethiopia has a lower level of elementary level education compared to 18th century American, it has a much higher level of secondary and tertiary level education.
    Most education in 18 century America was in New England. It was due to 1st immigrants to New England, the Puritans, who valued education. The puritans valued education, both for the sake of religious study(they demanded a great deal of bible reading) and for the sake of economic success. The southern part of 18 century America was farming economy. Consequently, had very very few schools if any. Wealthy children studied with private tutors; middle class children might learn to read from literate parents or older sibs. Many poor and middle class white children, as well as all black children went unschooled. Secondary schools were very rare outside major towns such as Boston, NY, Philly and Charleston.
    One important lesson from 18th century American education system is the emphasis of bible education from elementary school to college. Bible education were given in elementary, secondary and tertiary schools. The leaders of the time wanted to produce citizen with a very high moral values, work ethic and wanted to produce disciplined citizens. Likewise, as a Christian and Muslim nation we should consider incorporating religious/bible and also Koran education starting in elementary school and ending after completion of 4 year university education in order to produce citizens who value honesty, integrity, hard work, excellence, trustworthiness and selfless service.
    Lastly, less than 50% of founding fathers, those who wrote the usa constitution, had college level education. Which means most of them had basic reading education. Most of their education came because of their motivation to educate themselves. They were self thought warriors. Consequently, with wide spread availability of knowledge via the internet, there is not excuse for anyone with a basic reading/writing ability to not develop oneself by self teaching to a very very high level of education.

  21. Abdu
    | #21

    If there was unity by consent of all ethinics group,no more lack of ani unity feeling would occurred.
    Forcely created current ethiopia is going on the red way.unless strong campaign ‘ll held for unification.
    When we are reading ethiopian history of last 100yrs,unification was come by murdering or killing many anti unity group.there was not participation local kings and governors.those all against minilik were killedeven un armed peoples
    the unforgettable Eritrean situation was as example.
    Hailesilasse did a big mistakes when he reunited Eritrea to ethiopia.,bc it was waiting referdom.but he denied 2yrs left referodom and made unnecessary sacrificed yuz .
    Forcely united Eritrea as none master m

  22. Abdu
    | #22

    If always we say ‘past kings were right and no any more oppressed during their regime,we couldnt reache common goal.
    First,most of current elite people from all ethinic groups should come to one point and agreed on last ethiopian history particular yohanis to minilik.
    Such historical ambitions which barier and created wall between majority oromo and elite amhara.
    Inorder to smooth the perception oromo toward minilik and other peoples,whatever minilik regime was ruled by compositions of mixed group,there had many oromo peoples died whoever did it.
    So oromo people should be critized the ‘regime’ instead of amhara.while current amhara also accepting ”the regime” eror and feel it like oromo.
    It was bad history and not by tplf.
    Instead of blaming tplf all of us should accepted true history.
    Some peoples seeming minilik wz saint and ignoring his mistakes.
    He was hero(defeat Italy),he was dictator(killing many ?)
    what olf teach oromo people was wrong.olf agenda and eplf agenda were the same ??
    Oromo people are a back bone for ethiopia.and separate from ethiopia is impossible and feasible .if no oromia no how can it?

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