The King of Ethiopian Music, Tilahun Gesesse dies at the age of 69

April 20th, 2009 Print Print Email Email

The renowned and veteran Ethiopian vocalist, Tilahun Gessesse, passed away on April 19, 2009. (more…)

The renowned and veteran Ethiopian vocalist, Tilahun Gessesse, passed away on April 19, 2009.

Tilahun Gessesse (Amharic: ጥላሁን ገሠሠ) (also spelled Telahun Gesesse or Tlahoun Gèssèssè) is an Ethiopian singer. He was born on September 29, 1940, in Addis Ababa and died on April 19, 2009.

Gessesse was born to Woizero Gete Gurmu, and Ato Gessesse Negusse. When he was fourteen years old, he was taken by his grandfather to Waliso where he began attending Ras Gobena Elementary School.

As time went by, his interest in music became increasingly clear, although his grandfather urged him to concentrate on his academic studies. The Ras Gobena School Principal Mr. Shedad (who was from Sudan), encouraged Gessesse’s interest in music and urged him to go to Sudan to pursue his music career. Although Gessesse did not go to Sudan, he took Mr. Shedad’s advice very seriously. When Woizro Negatwa Kelkai, Ato Eyoel Yohanes and others artists from the Hager Fikir Theatre came to his school to perform, Gessesse took the opportunity to discuss his interest in music with Ato Eyoel. He was told to go to Addis Ababa if he wanted to pursue a career in the field.

Gessesse left school to go to Addis Ababa, a journey he began on foot without his grandfather’s consent. When his grandfather realized that Tilahun was no longer in Woliso, he informed Gessesse’s great-aunt in Tulu Bolo. After Gessesse traveled fifteen kilometers on foot, he was caught in Tulu Bolo and stayed overnight with his great-aunt Woizero Temene Bantu. The next day, he was forced to return back to his grandfather in Woliso. Since his interest in music lay deep in his heart, Gessesse chose not to stay at his grandfather’s house in Woliso. After staying only one night at his grandfather’s house, he again began his journey to Addis Ababa, this time hiding himself in the back of a loaded truck.

In Addis Ababa, Gessesse was first hired by the Hager Fikir Association, which is now known as Hager Fikir Theater. After a few years at the Hager Fikir Theater, he joined the Imperial Bodyguard Band where he became a leading star singer. During his time with the band, Gessesse ran afoul of the government after the attempted coup d’état of December 1960 by the Imperial Bodyguard. He was arrested and put in prison for a time.

Gessesse moved to the National Theater where his success continued. He was so famous that he appeared three times in front of Emperor Haile Selassie I. During a visit, the Emperor advised him not to abuse his talent.

The majority of Gessesse’s recordings are in Amharic, though he has recorded a number of songs in Oromo.

He received an Honorary Doctorate Degree from Addis Ababa University, in appreciation of his contribution to Ethiopian music. He has also received an award for his lifetime achievements from the Ethiopian Fine Art and Mass Media Prize Trust.


  1. Yohaness
    | #1

    Bob Marley,Marvin Gaye, James Brown and TILHUN GESSESSE. Simply legends.

  2. atuba dolla
    | #2

    At the beginning God created the Earth and the Heaven,then was born the irreplaceable;the Birds,the Moon,the Stars,and the sun sang,light up,twinkled,and shone and made a link with eternal universe;now, we know that there is the falvor of life in all of us. The origin and the nature of that beautiful voice is the one and the original that can not be reproduced or can not be duplicated in any form or shape;but,the voice has its unique anatomy and physiology and the songs are lovable,spontanious,romantic,and purposeful and will reside in our loving hearts for many,many centures to come.

    God bless Ethiopia and Tilahun Gessesse forever.Amen and Amen.

  3. zewdu, canada
    | #3

    it is a big loss for ethiopian music and ethiopia, god bless your soul tilahun.

  4. አለማየሁ
    | #4

    “”"”ህይወት የምድረ በዳ አበባ ነው ፍሬውም የሚረግፍ ቅጠሉም የሚጠወልግ”"”
    ጥልዬ በህይወት ነው የተለየን ስራው ግን በታሪክ ለዘላለም ይኖራል
    እግዚአብሄር ለበተሰቦቹ ጽናቱንና ብርታቱን ይስጣችው እላለሁ እንዲሁም ለመላው ወገኔ ሁሉ
    በህይወት ያለን ሰዎች ግን ከጥላሁን ሞት እንማር ዛሬ ማልቀስና ማዘን ብቻ አይበቃም
    ህይወት እንደ ጥላ ሃላፊ ነው እባካችሁ በፍቅርና በሰላም በደስታ ትቻችለን እንኑር
    ነገ እያንዳንዳችን እንደ ጥልዬ ጥለን ለምንሄደው ለዚህ አለም ኑሮ አንጨካከን

    ፍቅርና ሰላም ለሁላችን

  5. ሙከራ
    | #5

    እንዲያው ይህ አማርኛ መስራቱን ለማረጋገጥ ነው:: ምክንያቱም: አንዳንዶቻችሁ እንኩዋን በእንግሊዘኛ በአማርኛም spell ማድረግ ፍቓደኛ አይደላችሁም:: ….. who is this ‘ጠላሁኝ’ guy anyways?

  6. Yonas Alemu Amsterdam, Holland
    | #6

    I am deeply shocked when I heard this bad news. Ethiopian music lovers know who Tilanun Gessesse is. All age Ethiopians loves him very much. He won the heart and love of all Ethiopians.

    Ethiopia lost a great man in art. His songs touch every angle of life and nature. He songs for everything about everything. I love all his music and have his album always with me.

    May God bless his soul and put at rest in heaven.

  7. We all lost except Meles
    | #7

    We all lost except Meles and his Tigre Liberation Front who live to kill and destroy anything Ethiopian.

  8. Aden1
    | #8

    May God bless his soul and be with him to rest in peace. My deepest condolence to his children, family, friends and funs.

    Millions of people have loved others and their countries with the reinforcement of Tilahun Gessesses’s music. He was a life of weddings, celebrations, love, joy and hope.

    It is as if that generation had come to its end. He broke the fast of Easter on Sunday in celebration of the day Jesus Christ won over death. Tilahun is immortal and will remain in the memories of millions of people. I am choking with tears, but also relieved he knew, he had made millions of people so happy in good and bad times. Considering death is inevitable to all of us, his family and funs should find comfort and celebrate his music. A man like him did not die; he accomplished and rested.

    I believe his last marriage could have been a comfort for him; and in some of his video interviews, his beautiful wife joined him. If there is an address to mail her and his children condolence cards, please post it.

  9. Anonymous
    | #9

    ሞት ለማነም አይቀርም ግን ያው እግዚአብሔር ነፍሱን ይቀበላት

  10. ቹቹ
    | #10

    “ወይ ሰው ከንቱ ድንጋይ ትራሱ”……ምን አለ??????????? ሞት እራሱ ቢሞት?????

  11. mesfin
    | #11

    Please send your card to po box 11301 alexandria, va 22312

  12. sam
    | #12

    Am sad to hear that .HIS WORKS WILL LIVE FOREVER .Have you asked yourself .HOW many more years you got left.we have one hope TEDDY AFRO.

  13. solomon
    | #13

    ወይ እግዚአብሔር!!!የኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ ምንድን ነው ያጠፍው ? ሰው ገዳይ ,ሰው በላ, ሐገር ሻጭ እና ዘረኛ,የወያኔ ቡድን ተቀምጦ ጥልላሁን ይሙት::
    በወያኔ ቡድን የጭካኔ ሴራ ምክንያት ሀገሬን ለቅቄ በባእድ ሐገር ብቸየን በተቀመጥኩበት ሐገር በጣም አዘንኩኝ!!!

    ለማንኛውም ጥልላሁን ለኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ ከሚጠበቅበት በላይ አገልግሎ ነው የሞተ እኛስ?????
    እግዚአብሔር ነፍስህን ይንከባከብልን!!!

  14. ራስ
    | #14

    ኤልቨስ ፕርስሊ እስካሁን በአሜርካኖች ሰነልቦና ውስጥ ታስቦ እንደሚኖረው,የታላቁስ የኢትዮጵ የዘፈን ንጉስ የሆነው , ጥላሁን ገሰስ, ስራስ እንዴታ በመላው ኢትዮጵያዊያን ስነልቦና ውስጥ አርፎስ አይኖር.?

  15. Keffelew A
    | #15

    Shocking news, people of all age loved Tilahun’s music. We lost a great person with great talent. We miss you a lot Tilahun. May your soul rest in peace.

  16. ሥብሃት ተሰማ
    | #16

    በዘላለ የሰላም ና የጸጥታ ስፍራ አምላክ ነፍሱን ያሳርፋት: አፈሩን ገለባ ያርግለት::

  17. ኢሳያስ
    | #17

    አንዞ እየበላ ያለቅሳል መለስ ዘናዊ ሃዘኑን በተለቭን አሰተላለፈ ሚስቱ አዘብ በድንኩዋን አለቀስች

  18. gelemso
    | #18


  19. Anonymous
    | #19

    What a big loss.
    May his soul rest in peace in heaven


  20. mimi london
    | #20

    my deep condelence to the ethiopian people.
    oh God please save ethiopia

  21. BAD BOY me
    | #21

    Is there any thing lefte that he didn`t try , to make all of us ethiopian`s to love our country
    and song`s. be Proud and united.
    We only say Tilahun was an Ethiopian #1 for unity and love.

    May God Bless His soul .

    Member`s of ( Ethiopian`s Music Club ) Paltalk

  22. ቅቅ
    | #22

    “ደግ አይበረክትም” ቀን ይፍጅ እንጂ እኛስ መች ይቀርልናል. ወይ ሞት………

  23. zeleykun
    | #23

    o holly God forgive him for what his has done during his life time in this world
    i pray to his wife and childern to accept this with out pre condition life is short in this world he left for long and this is what we all dear ethiopians condelence in side and out side pray the lord and think how lucky he is he dide at home our beloved country and beyond that with his families think about this shows that the almeighty God prepared his last way on such unforgetabel date and that is in eastern time the date never fail from our mind and
    i wish to all such conditions but it is not easy.

  24. አንድነት
    | #24

    የጥላሁን ገሰሰ ከእኛ በሞት መለየት ትልቅና ከባድ ሃዘን ቢሆንም ስራዎቹ ከትውልድ ወደትውልድ ለዘለአለም የሚተላለፍ የሃገራችን ሃብት ጸጋ ነው:: በተለይም አንድነታችንን አደጋ ላይ እየጣሉ ያሉት ወያኔ-ሻቢያዎችን ጥልሽ እስከመጨረሻው ድረስ ተዋግቶዋቸዋል:: ዘፈኖቹም ሁሉ የኢትዮጵያን መላው ብሔረሰብ አንድነት ቀስቅሷል: ከፋፋይ ወንበዴዎችን አውግዟል:: በአጠቃላይ የኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ አንድነትን እስከመጨረሻ ድረስ ጠብቀን እንድንኖር አስተምሯል::
    እግዚአብሔር ነፍሱን ይማርልን!!! አሜን

  25. Fiker
    | #25

    He was a special musician for all Ethiopians.We all lost someone so important to look up. God save him in the warm side.

  26. በድሩ
    | #26

    አሁን ከወያኔ ጋ ምን አገናጝው?

  27. Democrat
    | #27

    ወታደር አንድነት: አንተ የምትለፈልፍልት ‘ዘፍን’ እኮ እንደ ያያትህ ገለባ ‘በታሪክ ገለባ ክምር’ ላይ ይገኛል:: እየየ እና ተግባር የሚለያዩት በውጤት ላይ ነው:: የጥላሁንን ነፍስ እግዚአብሔር ይማር:: ዘፈኖቹ ሁሉም ሕይወቱን ያረካበት ነው:: ነገር ግን እንዳንተ አይነቶቹ የገለባን ክምር ይጠብቃሉ:: ለጥላሁን ሳይሆን ከበሮ ለሚስደልቁህ እዘን::

  28. Democrat
    | #28

    በገለባ የተሞላ ከበሮ መደለቅ ስለሚያምረው ነው:: ‘የጥሌን ቤተሰቦች እግዚአብሔር ያጽናናቸው’
    ጥሌ ያልሰራው ነገር ቢኖር : ነገር ግን በስውር (inferencially)የሚታወቀው ለሕልማኞች ሳያንጎራጉር ማለፉ ነው::

  29. Derege
    | #29


    Rest In Peace and Thank You for your Invaluable gifts!


  30. Democrat
    | #30

    Don’t you know that you are a ‘dead fish out of pond’. Don’t you know that ‘the unity you day-dream about’ is a baseless unity, the unity that hang on a ‘decayed pole’. You can’t bring the unity you are talking about by ‘ignoring the reality’. Direct your mind to an analysis of ‘why Hailesilassie’s and Derg’s power get collapsed?’ You may start with a phrase ‘the constitution was baseless’, it addressed only the ‘hodamoch’s interest’. That interest cann’t see any more chance than dreaming ‘ኤየየየ..’ Hey! put it to the cemetry!

  31. Peace
    | #31

    i am crying so hard, this guys music has touched my soul for many years.

  32. solomon
    | #32


    የጥላሁንን ዘፈን አዳምጠህ አታውቅ ከሆነ አዳምጥ:: ግጥሞቹን መተርጎም ካቃተህ ባለሙያ ጠይቅ:: ከዚህ ውጭ ከሆነ ችግርህ የሚፈታው በሂደት ይሆናል:: ያኔ በትክክል ትረዳዋለህ::

    ለማንኛውም ጥልየን ነፍሱን ይማር::

  33. solomon
    | #33


    ከወያኔ ጋር የማይገናኝ ነገር ምን አለ:: በአለም ላይ የሚታዩ እና የሚሰሙ አስቀያሚ ከስተቶች በሙሉ ወያኔ ተግብሮአችዋል::የአንድ ማሕበረሰብ የእድሜ ጣራ የሚወሰነው ባለው የኑሮ ሁኔታ, ዋስትን እና ሰላም እንደሖነ መገንዘብ አለብህ::ይህ ደግሞ የወያኔ ስራ ነበር:: ግን ምን ይሁን ወያኔ ባራክ አኦባማ እንዲሰራለት እየጠበቀ ይገኛ::አሜሪካን ሐገር በሰላም የኖረ ሰው የኢትዮጵያን ምድር ሲረግጥ በጭንቅት ሞተ:: ይህም የሆነው ጥሌ ለህዝቡ እና ለሀገሩ ስለሚጨነቅ እና ስለሚያስብ ነው::
    ለማንኛውም ጥልየን ነፍሱን ይማር::

  34. Democrat
    | #34

    ምናልባት ሳህን አጠባ አቁአርጠህ የጥሌን ገንቢ የሆኑ የዘፈን ትርጉሞችን ‘ላም አለኝ ከሰማይ….’ ከሆነው የኑሮ መመሪያህ ጋር እንዲስማማ አድርገህ ካልተረጎምክ በስተቀር 99% የሚሆን ግጥሙ ‘ከአክሱም እስክ ሞያሌ’ ለሚኖር ኢትዮጲያዊ/ት ተመሳሳይ የሆነ የአገር/የሰው ፍቅር መግለጫነት አያልፍም:: 1%ቱ ምናልባት ‘ላም አለኝ ከሰማይ….’ን የኑሮ መርሆ አድርገው ለሚልከሰከሱ የተለየ ትርጉም ሊስጥ ይችላል:: ውጤቱ ግን ደጋግመን ካየነው እና አንተን በስደት ከሚያንገላታው ዝረራ አያልፍም::ጀኔራሎች የታጠቁትን ማካሮቨ ላማስረከብ በሰልፍ ላይ እንድተቦአከሱ መረጃ እንዳለህ ግልጽ ነው; ምናልባት ከዚያ በሁአላ ያልተወለድክ ካለሆነ:: ከሆነም ለሰላማዊ ሰልፍ ስትወጣ; የጥገኝነት የድጋፍ ወረቀት ለማግኘት; በቦታው ከነበሩት ተረዳ; ተጨባጭ የሆነ ታሪክ የሚያስረዱህ ከሆነ:: ካልሆነ እንግዲህ ለበጎ ያልታደለ ‘የኑሮ መመርያህን’ መግፋት ነው:: አራት ኪሎ እንኝገና

  35. Ye Ager Sew
    | #35

    I had the honor and the pleasure to know Artist Tilahun Gessese through his music for all this years. I was very sad to hear about his passing away. I had the greatest respect for him and for his music. My condolences to his family and for all Ethiopian people. Rest in peace legend……. rest in peace!!!

  36. lalala79
    | #36

    so what he is over 85 we all will dead. we have to think about children who is daying every day in ethiopia. Tilahun had a great life god bless him.

  37. lalala79
    | #37

    እግዛብሀር ነብሱን ይማረው. ውረ . አታብዙ. ሁልችህነም . እንሞታለን. ትሃሁን .ትሩ.ሀይወት. ኖሮነው.የሞተው.

  38. solomon
    | #38


    ምንጊዜም ወንበዴ ሰወችን ሊያሳምን የሚሞክረው በማስፈራራት ነው:: ከሚጠቀምባቸውም መንገዶች መዝለፍ;መዋሸት,ያለውን ሀቅም ማሳይት እና የመሳሰሉት ናቸው:: ከነእንደዚህ አይነት ሰወች ጋር ጥልቀት ያለው አስተሳሰብን, አስተዋይነትን እና ምርምርን በሚጠይቂ እንደ ጥሌ ዘፈኖች ባሉ ጉዳይ ላይ መግባባት አይቻልም:: በመሆኑም አንተ እና እኔ ልንግባባ አንችልም:: ይህም አይድንቀኝም:: የሚደንቀኝ የሐገር አንድንት እና ፍቅር ሲነሳ ወንበዴዎች ለምን ይናደዳሉ?? ወንበዴ,ሌባ እና ሽፍታ የሚፈልግትን ነገር ስለሚያገኙ ለጊዜው ይደሰታሉ:: ነገር ግን ብዙ እድሜ አይኖራቸውም::አሞማታቸውም አስቀያሚ ነው ልክ እንደ ደርግ:: ከወር በፊት በባህ ዳር ከተማ ምን እንደተደረገ ብትሰማ እና ብታውቅ ኑሮ እንዲህ ባልዘላበድህ ነበር::ክፉ አውሬ አራቱን እግሮቹን በአንዴ አያጣም :: በጣም ክፉ ከመሆኑ የተነሳ በአንድ እግሩም ቢሆን ለመንቀሳቀስ ይሞክራል::በመጨረሻ ግን ሽባ ይሆን እና የራሱ ዘመዶች ይበሉታል::

    ለሰጠን የሐገር ፍቅር እና አንድንት እናመሰግነዋለን ነፍሱንም ይማርልን::

  39. Kinubesh Gobena
    | #39

    It is really sad to hear that the greatest singer of our time died on Easter. He was one of the greatest Ethiopian legends that will be missed. I symptize with his wife, children and all Ethiopians who loved and respected him. It is a national loss.

  40. Sab
    | #40

    I am deeply sadden by this news, My condolence to his children, family and friends. One Love

    | #41

    condolence for his family

  42. @mdessalign
    | #42

    ጥላሁን በጣም እንውደሃለን አንተ ብትሞትም ለዘላለም ስምህ አይሞትም እግዝአብሔር ነፍስህን በአብርሃም በይሕሳቅ ቦታ ያኑራት.

  43. Anonymous
    | #43

    very saddened by the news of Tilahun’s passing. Great memories for many generations.May he rest in peace and our loved ones who’re gone.

  44. Selam
    | #44

    Did he have time to ask for forgiveness, and Repent???
    I feel great sympathy for all Dr. Tilahune G. family, relative and everyone who is in grief.

    Selam :(

  45. Anonymous
    | #45

    ‘አፍ ሲክፈት ጭንቅላት ይታያል’ይባል የለም:: በዚችዉ አንድ ምእርፍ በማትሆን ሀሳብህ የሁለትዮሽ አእምሮ ያለበት ሰው ምልክት ታሳያለህ:: ሳይዋጥልህ የግድህን ‘የደርግን እስከ ወዲያኛዉ መሸኘት’ እዉነታን ታስረግጣለህ:: ከበሮ ያስነገቱህ በሰላም ግዜ የሰላማዊ ሰልፍ አጫፋሮችህ ምስላቻዉ ብቅ ሲልብህ ደግሞ የጥንት ቃላት ፍለጋ የተቀበረ ብቱቱ ታሥሳለህ:: የደርግን መሸኘት ስታነሳ የኢትዮጵያ ብሔረሰቦች ለእኩልነትና ለነጻነት ያላቸዉ የዘመናት መነሳሳት ወደ አመጽ ተሸጋግሮ በማይዝል ብርቱ እግሩ ከድል ወደ ድል እየተረማመደ ዛሬ የእያንዳንዱ ብሔረሰብ ተወላጅ (ካንተ መሰሉቹ ብስተቀር)የተጎናጸፈዉን ሁለንተናዊ መብት ታንጸባርቃለህ:: የደርግን እጣ ፈንታ ማንሳትህ (ማንሳታችሁ) የግድ እንደመሆኑ መጠን የተገኘዉ የብሔረሰቦች ሁለንተናዊ መብት ነጸብራቅም እንደዚያዉ የግድ ነዉ:: በዚህ ጽሑፍህ ልታነሳ የዳዳሔዉ ወንበዴ እና ለደርግ መገርሰሰ በግንባር ቀደምትነት ለተሰለፈዉ የምትሰጠዉ የባለቤትነት ስም የተለያዩ ልታደርግ ትሞክራለህ:: ግን አንድ ናቸዉ:: የደርግ እና መሰሎቹ ideology ሱሱ ሆኖብህ አልለይ አለህ:: በሌላ ሰዉ ሕልም አትኑር:: የራስህን ሰዉ ሁን:: ኢትዮጵያ ዛሬ ያለችበት የዜጎቿ የማንነት ንቃተ-ሕሊና ከማንኛዉ የአለም አገር ዜጋ አይተናነስም:: እንደ የ19ኛዉ ክፍለዘመን ሌላዉ በኤዉሮፓ ትጥቅ በልጦ የሌላዉን ክልል ሕዝብና ሕብት እንደ የዱር ሐብት የምዘርፍበት ዘመን አብቅቷል:: ላልም ብትልም አይመጣልህም:: ስለዚህ ስድተኛዉ-ወንድሜ ለዚህ ብለህ አትሰደድ! ልብህንም አታስጨንቅ:: አንድ አላማ ይኑርህ:: በገንዘብህ ‘ሐብት ለማካበት መበዝበዝ’ስልታቸዉ ላደረጉት ሲሳይ አትሁን:: ደሃ ዘመድህን እርዳበት: አስተምርበት:: ለአንድነት የምትሰጠዉ ትርጉም የኢትዮጵያ እዉነታን ያንጸባረቀ ይሁን:: መልካሙን ሁሉ እመኝልሃለሁ:: @solomon

  46. Ethiopia
    | #46

    ከመዘላበድ መማርና መጠየቅ ይሻላል:: ነገር ግን ጠባብ አእምሮ ያላቸው ሰዎች መማርም ሆነ መጠየቅም አይፈልጉም::በእኔ አውቃለሁ አስተሳሰብ ህዝብን እና ሀገርን ሲያዋርድ እና ሲሸጥ ይታያል::ስለዚህ “አፍ ሲክፈት ጭንቅላት ይታያል ይባል የለም”:: እንደዚህ አይደለም የሚባለው:: ይቕንቕውን ፍልስፍና እና ሳይንስ እንደ ፖለቲካ አመለካክትህ አታበላሽ::

    ለአንት እና መሰሎቹ ዲሞክራሲ እና ልማት ማለት አንድን ብሔረሰብ ከሌላ ብሔረሰብ ጋር ደም ማፋሰስ ማጨፋጨፍ እና አገር እየቆረሱ ለባእድ ሐገር መስጠት ነው::የኢትዮጵያን ስም በዚህ አስተሳሰብ ማንሳትህ አለማፈርህ:: ማፈሪያ

    ዝም በል ድንጋይ ራስ ሰው በላ እና ሐገር ሻጭ ወያኔ @Anonymous

  47. ሃኒ
    | #47

    ውይ አረ ምንድ ነው የሰማሁት መርዶኦ ትላሁን እውነት ነው ህዝብህን ለማን ትተህ ነብስህን በገነት ያኑረው

  48. Anonymous
    | #48

    ደናአነችሀ እደምድመነችህ

  49. selam
    | #49

    Ethiopian great singer Tilahun Gessesse ………we all sad about u….. God Bless you Telya We all love uuuuuuuuuuu and miss uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu.

  50. pease
    | #50

    Oh my God it true that we hered about tilya ethiopian lost greate singer Tilhune Gessesse. God bless u telya we all love uuuuuuuuuu and we miss uuuuuuuuuuuu.

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